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UK Executive Stock Option Valuation: A Conditional Model

Author

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  • Edward Lee

    (Manchester Business School, UK)

  • Konstantinos Stathopoulos
  • Konstantinos Vonatsos

    (Manchester Business School, UK)

Abstract

We value UK executive stock options (ESOs) as American options that are awarded conditional on the probability of the holders achieving some performance criteria. Unlike the standard Black and Scholes (BS) model, which is universally used both in the literature and practice, this provides a more realistic representation of UK ESOs. We show that UK ESOs actually have less value and contain more incentives than they appear under the BS approach. Specifically, we observe a 17 per cent average discount in the value of the ESOs when compared to their BS value. In addition, we find significantly higher incentive levels when we measure the sensitivity of the options using the hedge ratio, i.e. the option's delta. We argue that these findings have implications for two contemporary debates in the UK, i.e. the substitution of ESOs by Long-Term Incentive Plans (LTIPs) and the discounting of ESO value from company profits. Copyright (c) 2007 The Authors; Journal compilation (c) 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Suggested Citation

  • Edward Lee & Konstantinos Stathopoulos & Konstantinos Vonatsos, 2007. "UK Executive Stock Option Valuation: A Conditional Model," Corporate Governance: An International Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(6), pages 1469-1479, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:corgov:v:15:y:2007:i:6:p:1469-1479
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Lisa Meulbroek, 2001. "The Efficiency of Equity-Linked Compensation: Understanding the Full Cost of Awarding Executive Stock Options," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 30(2), Summer.
    2. Hall, Brian J. & Murphy, Kevin J., 2002. "Stock options for undiversified executives," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 3-42, February.
    3. Brian J. Hall & Jeffrey B. Liebman, 1998. "Are CEOs Really Paid Like Bureaucrats?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 113(3), pages 653-691.
    4. Bebchuk, Lucian Arye & Fried, Jesse & Walker, David I, 2002. "Managerial Power and Rent Extraction in the Design of Executive Compensation," CEPR Discussion Papers 3558, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Conyon, Martin J & Murphy, Kevin J, 2000. "The Prince and the Pauper? CEO Pay in the United States and United Kingdom," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(467), pages 640-671, November.
    6. Carpenter, Jennifer N., 1998. "The exercise and valuation of executive stock options," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 127-158, May.
    7. Conyon, Martin & Gregg, Paul & Machin, Stephen, 1995. "Taking Care of Business, Executive Compensation in the United Kingdom," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(430), pages 704-714, May.
    8. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-654, May-June.
    9. Johnson, Shane A. & Tian, Yisong S., 2000. "Indexed executive stock options," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 35-64, July.
    10. Conyon, Martin J. & Sadler, Graham V., 2001. "CEO compensation, option incentives, and information disclosure," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 251-277.
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    Cited by:

    1. Minhat, Marizah & Abdullah, Mazni, 2016. "Bankers’ stock options, risk-taking and the financial crisis," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 22(C), pages 121-128.

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