IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Costs and Risks of Segregating GM Wheat in Canada


  • William W. Wilson
  • Bruce Dahl


"An analytical model was developed to explore prospective costs and risks of alternative testing strategies for a marketing system in Canada which markets both genetically modified (GM) and Non-GM wheats. The problem is solved using stochastic optimization, base case results are defined, and sensitivities conducted to evaluate impacts of selected variables. Added costs include: testing, rejection, and a risk premium which is required for handlers to be indifferent between the current and the proposed dual system. Protocols would require testing at the point of loading at the primary elevator, and export elevator, and supplementing this information with some form of grower variety declaration. There are several sources of inherent risks in such a system. For buyers, the cumulative impact of these is the risk of receiving GM content in a Non-GM shipment. For sellers, it is the risk of having a Non-GM shipment rejected. For sellers, the risk of rejection was typically less than 2%, and for buyers, the risk was typically less than 0.02%." Copyright 2006 Canadian Agricultural Economics Society.

Suggested Citation

  • William W. Wilson & Bruce Dahl, 2006. "Costs and Risks of Segregating GM Wheat in Canada," Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d'agroeconomie, Canadian Agricultural Economics Society/Societe canadienne d'agroeconomie, vol. 54(3), pages 341-359, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:canjag:v:54:y:2006:i:3:p:341-359

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: link to full text
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Wilson, William W. & Jabs, Eric J. & Dahl, Bruce L., 2003. "Optimal Testing Strategies For Genetically Modified Wheat," Agribusiness & Applied Economics Report 23605, North Dakota State University, Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics.
    2. Serrao, Amilcar & Coelho, Luis, 2000. "The Role Of Area-Yield Crop Insurance In Farmers' Adjustment Against Risk In A Dryland Region Of Portugal," 2000 Annual meeting, July 30-August 2, Tampa, FL 21841, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    3. Tilley, Marcia L. & Wright, Yancy, 2004. "Wheat Segregation And Identity-Preservation Cost," 2004 Annual Meeting, February 14-18, 2004, Tulsa, Oklahoma 34742, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.
    4. Bashir A. Qasmi & Wilhelm, Clayton J. & Van der Sluis, Evert, 2003. "Segregating Transgenic Grains:Results of a Survey Among Country Elevators in South Dakota," Research Reports 200302, South Dakota State University, Department of Economics.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. William W. Wilson & Xavier Henry & Bruce L. Dahl, 2008. "Costs and risks of conforming to EU traceability requirements: the case of hard red spring wheat," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(1), pages 85-101.
    2. Kalaitzandonakes, Nicholas & Magnier, Alexandre, 2013. "The economics of adventitious presence thresholds in the EU seed market," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 237-247.
    3. Kalaitzandonakes, Nicholas & Kaufman, James & Miller, Douglas, 2014. "Potential economic impacts of zero thresholds for unapproved GMOs: The EU case," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 146-157.
    4. Ge, Houtian & Nolan, James & Gray, Richard & Goetz, Stephan & Han, Yicheol, 2016. "Supply chain complexity and risk mitigation – A hybrid optimization–simulation model," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 179(C), pages 228-238.
    5. Ge, Houtian & Gray, Richard & Nolan, James, 2015. "Agricultural supply chain optimization and complexity: A comparison of analytic vs simulated solutions and policies," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 159(C), pages 208-220.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:canjag:v:54:y:2006:i:3:p:341-359. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing) or (Christopher F. Baum). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.