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Main Factors Determining the Difference in the Payment of Men and Women


  • Kapka Stoyanova


The study makes an effort to determine and systemize the factors, which form the main components of the differences in the payment by gender. A scheme for decomposing the factors is suggested: objective factors, human capital factor and discrimination factor. Made are multi-profile analyses and evaluations of the influence of the objective factors on the generating differences in the payment of men and women on macro level depending on the forms of ownership; mezzo level by economic activities, focusing on the ones with dominating female or male employment; macro level, i.e. of the work place, where is transformed and concretized the influence of the factors, acting on the higher levels. Concerning the human capital as a factor forming gender differences in the payments, three main groups of subjective characteristics are studies: education and qualification; experience, skills and competence level; leaders’ qualities and ability to make managing decisions. Relevant concrete measurements are made by profiles of education, profession and age. Attention is given also to the influence of the factor “direct and indirect discrimination” on the differences in the payment of men and women, revealing also the typical forms of appearance of the discrimination practices in the forming of the payments by gender. Based on an expert evaluation the possible ratio between the strength of influence of the studies factors is determined.

Suggested Citation

  • Kapka Stoyanova, 2007. "Main Factors Determining the Difference in the Payment of Men and Women," Economic Studies journal, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - Economic Research Institute, issue 2, pages 89-116.
  • Handle: RePEc:bas:econst:y:2007:i:2:p:89-116

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
    2. UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. MONEE project, 1999. "Women in Transition," Papers remore99/1, Regional Monitoring Report.
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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials


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