IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Retail Development in Rural Counties: Evidence from the Upper Midwest


  • Blair, John P.
  • Traynor, Thomas
  • Duan, Manjiang


Concerns have been raised that potential retail activity is being lost in rural areas. This study examines the response of retail employment and the number of retail establishments to changes in local employment in isolated rural areas. Since many attempts to strengthen rural retail activity focused on increasing market size by attracting manufacturing activities, special a ttention is devoted to the empirical analysis of the manufacturing/retail relationship. Using data from the upper Midwest, a statistically significant association between changes in manufacturing employment and resulting changes in retail employment was found. The stimulative impact of manufacturing employment on retail activity was found to be more consistent than other types of job growth. Manufacturing activity also stimulated new retail establishments. Competition from nearby metropolitan areas contributed to the difficulty rural areas have in retail development and the difficulty may be increasing since the start of the analysis.

Suggested Citation

  • Blair, John P. & Traynor, Thomas & Duan, Manjiang, 2004. "Retail Development in Rural Counties: Evidence from the Upper Midwest," Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, Mid-Continent Regional Science Association, vol. 34(1).
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:jrapmc:132280

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. William A. Testa, 1993. "Trends and prospects for rural manufacturing," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Mar, pages 27-36.
    2. David Mushinski & Stephen Weiler, 2002. "A Note on the Geographic Interdependencies of Retail Market Areas," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(1), pages 75-86.
    3. Thomas H. Klier & Kenneth M. Johnson, 2000. "Effect of auto plant opening on net migration in the auto corridor, 1980-97," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Q IV, pages 14-29.
    4. Bain, John S., 1984. "Transfer Payment Impacts on Rural Retail Markets: A Regression Analysis," Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, Mid-Continent Regional Science Association, vol. 14(1).
    5. John J. Gruidl & Dimitri Andrianacos, 1994. "Determinants Of Rural Retail Trade: A Case Study Of Illinois," The Review of Regional Studies, Southern Regional Science Association, vol. 24(1), pages 103-118, Summer.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Richard V. Adkisson & Francisco J. Pallares, 2016. "Retail employment in rural America: The case of New Mexico," Regional Science Policy & Practice, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(1-2), pages 75-91, March.
    2. Randall Akee & Elton Mykerezi & Richard M. Todd, 2017. "Reservation Employer Establishments: Data from the U.S. Census Longitudinal Business Database," Working Papers 17-57, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.

    More about this item


    Community/Rural/Urban Development;


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:jrapmc:132280. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.