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Von Schweden lernen: Weiterbildung gering Qualifizierter im Rahmen der kommunalen Erwachsenenbildung (Komvux)

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  • Schulte-Braucks, Philipp
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    Abstract

    Gering Qualifizierte weisen in Deutschland eine im Vergleich zum Bevölkerungsdurchschnitt deutlich niedrigere Beschäftigungsquote und Weiterbildungsbeteiligung auf. Auch im europäischen Vergleich schneidet Deutschland im Bereich der Arbeitsmarktintegration und Weiterbildung gering Qualifizierter eher schlecht ab. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden gängige Erklärungen für die unterdurchschnittliche Weiterbildungsbeteiligung gering Qualifizierter diskutiert, und es wird anschließend nach den institutionellen Voraussetzungen gefragt, um diese Gruppe stärker in die berufliche Weiterbildung zu integrieren. Die Untersuchung konzentriert sich dabei auf das Beispiel Schweden, das sich im europäischen Vergleich durch eine auffallend hohe Beschäftigungsquote und Weiterbildungsbeteiligung gering Qualifizierter auszeichnet. Im Zentrum steht das schwedische Arbeitsmarkt- und Weiterbildungssystem. Von besonderer Bedeutung ist dabei ein innovatives System der kommunalen Erwachsenenbildung (Komvux), dessen Funktionsweise und Erfolge ausführlich dargestellt und mit Zahlen belegt werden. Ausgehend von den Befunden der schwedischen Länderstudie werden schließlich mögliche Impulse und Ansatzpunkte für die deutsche Arbeitsmarkt- und Weiterbildungspolitik diskutiert. Als Lücke im deutschen institutionellen System erweist sich dabei das Fehlen einer präventiv ausgerichteten und breit angelegten Weiterbildungsförderung, die für gering Qualifizierte eine zweite Chance zum Erwerb einer beruflichen Ausbildung eröffnen würde. -- In comparison with other European countries, low skilled workers in Germany show rather low rates of employment and participation in further training. This article discusses common explanations for lower participation of low skilled workers in further training and looks for institutional solutions to overcome these problems. The main focus is on Sweden, one of the most successful countries in Europe with regard to integrating low skilled workers in employment and further training. After a brief introduction into the Swedish labour market and skill formation system, special attention is focused on Komvux, an innovative and successful training policy on the communal level. Based on existing studies and available statistics, the article gives a detailed overview on the functioning and outcomes of Komvux. It shows how existing barriers to further training can be overcome by institutional measures. The Swedish case raises questions for German labour market and training policies. In particular, the absence of a preventive and integrative oriented approach to further training, providing a second chance to achieve professional qualifications, turns out to be gap in German state policies.

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    Paper provided by Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) in its series Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Skill Formation and Labor Markets with number SP I 2013-502.

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    Date of creation: 2013
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:wzbslm:spi2013502

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