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Ungleiche Bildungschancen: welche Rolle spielen underachievement und Persönlichkeitsstruktur?

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  • Uhlig, Johannes
  • Solga, Heike
  • Schupp, Jürgen

Abstract

Der Beitrag untersucht, inwiefern ungleiche Bildungschancen mit dem Phänomen von Underachievement verbunden sind und ob Persönlichkeitseigenschaften den Zusammenhang von sozialer Herkunft und Bildungschancen vermitteln. Underachievement ist - entsprechend dem mehrgliedrigen deutschen Bildungssystem - als Besuch eines Schultyps definiert, der unterhalb des jeweiligen individuellen kognitiven Lernpotenzials von Jugendlichen liegt. Die Analysen basieren auf Daten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP). Sie zeigen, dass das Risiko eines Underachievement und damit die Entdeckung vorhandener Lernpotenziale stark von der sozialen Herkunft der Kinder abhängen. Verteilungsunterschiede in Persönlichkeitsstrukturen nach sozialer Herkunft spielen dafür allerdings keine Rolle. Vielmehr haben Persönlichkeitseigenschaften einen stärkeren Einfluss auf den Schulerfolg von Kindern mit akademisch gebildeten Eltern - und nicht, wie wohl häufig eher erwartet wird, bei Kindern von Eltern ohne akademischen Abschluss. Ferner deuten die Befunde darauf hin, dass nicht Leistungs-, sondern eher Unterschiede in Bildungsentscheidungen das höhere Risiko eines Underachievement von Kindern aus nicht-akademischen Familien verursachen. -- The paper examines the impact of underachievement on inequality of educational opportunities and of personality traits as a mediating mechanism between the two. The paper develops a definition that is suitable to identify underachievement in the German school system with its different types of secondary schools. Underachievement is defined as attending a school type that is below the individual cognitive learning potential, measured by tests for fluid intelligence. The empirical analyses use the data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP). They show that underachievement is dependent on social origin. This clearly violates the principle of equal opportunities. Compositional differences in personality traits between children with different social background are not responsible for differences in the risk of underachievement. Moreover, the influence of personality traits is larger for children from higher social classes, and not for children from lower social classes. A comparison of school grades of underachievers and non-underachievers reveals finally that not differences in school performance, but differences in educational decisions cause the higher risk of underachievement of children from lower classes.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) in its series Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Skill Formation and Labor Markets with number SP I 2009-503.

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Date of creation: 2009
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:wzbslm:spi2009503

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Ruß, Uwe, 2012. "Bildung, Meritokratie und Ungleichheit: Gibt es einen Zusammenhang zwischen Bildungsungleichheiten, Meritokratieglauben und der Verteilung der Einkommen in fortgeschrittenen Gesellschaften?," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Skill Formation and Labor Markets SP I 2012-501, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  2. Schulte-Braucks, Philipp, 2013. "Von Schweden lernen: Weiterbildung gering Qualifizierter im Rahmen der kommunalen Erwachsenenbildung (Komvux)," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Skill Formation and Labor Markets SP I 2013-502, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  3. Solga, Heike & Brzinsky-Fay, Christian & Graf, Lukas & Gresch, Cornelia & Protsch, Paula, 2013. "Vergleiche innerhalb von Gruppen und institutionelle Gelingensbedingungen: Vielversprechende Perspektiven für die Ungleichheitsforschung," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Skill Formation and Labor Markets SP I 2013-501, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  4. Solga, Heike, 2009. "Der Blick nach vorn: Herausforderungen an das deutsche Ausbildungssystem. Thesenpapier zum Symposium des WZB am 19.11.2009," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Skill Formation and Labor Markets SP I 2009-507, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  5. Moen, Phyllis, 2010. "From "work-family" to the "gendered life course" and "fit": Five challenges to the field," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Skill Formation and Labor Markets SP I 2010-501, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  6. Brzinsky-Fay, Christian, 2010. "The concept of transitional labour markets: A theoretical and methodological inventory," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Skill Formation and Labor Markets SP I 2010-507, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  7. Powell, Justin J. W. & Coutrot, Laurence & Graf, Lukas & Bernhard, Nadine & Kieffer, Annick & Solga, Heike, 2009. "Comparing the relationship between vocational and higher education in Germany and France," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Skill Formation and Labor Markets SP I 2009-506, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  8. Pfahl, Lisa & Powell, Justin J. W., 2010. "The special education profession and the discourse of learning disability in Germany," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Skill Formation and Labor Markets SP I 2010-504, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  9. Krause, Annabelle & Rinne, Ulf & Schüller, Simone, 2012. "Kick It Like Özil? Decomposing the Native-Migrant Education Gap," IZA Discussion Papers 6696, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Solga, Heike & Kretschmann, Claudia, 2010. "Follow-up-Studie zur Evaluation des Projekts "Abschlussquote erhöhen - Berufsfähigkeit steigern"," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Skill Formation and Labor Markets SP I 2010-503, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  11. Blanck, Jonna M. & Edelstein, Benjamin & Powell, Justin J.W., 2013. "Von der schulischen Segregation zur inklusiven Bildung? Die Wirkung der UN-Konvention über die Rechte von Menschen mit Behinderungen auf Bildungsreformen in Bayern und Schleswig-Holstein," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Skill Formation and Labor Markets SP I 2013-504, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  12. Wotschack, Philip & Scheier, Franziska & Schulte-Braucks, Philipp & Solga, Heike, 2011. "Mehr Zeit für Weiterbildung: Neue Wege der betrieblichen Arbeitszeitgestaltung," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Skill Formation and Labor Markets SP I 2011-501, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  13. Wotschack, Philip, 2010. "Working-time options over the life course: New challenges to German companies in times of crisis," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Skill Formation and Labor Markets SP I 2010-502, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  14. Wotschack, Philip & Solga, Heike, 2013. "Voraussetzungen einer guten betrieblichen Weiterbildungspraxis: Ergebnisse aus zehn Fallstudien in 'Best-Practice'-Betrieben," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Skill Formation and Labor Markets SP I 2013-503, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).

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