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Gewerkschaften und Arbeitgeberverbände: Organisationsgrade, Tarifbindung und Einflüsse auf Löhne und Beschäftigung


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  • Schnabel, Claus


Gewerkschaften und Arbeitgeberverbände spielen in Deutschland nicht nur bei der Lohnfindung, sondern auch in sozialpolitischen und arbeitsrechtlichen Fragen eine wichtige Rolle. Während die Mehrheit der Firmen in Arbeitgeberverbänden organisiert ist, sind weniger als ein Viertel der Beschäftigten Mitglied einer Gewerkschaft. Beide Sozialpartner haben große Probleme, neue Mitglieder zu gewinnen und bestehende zu halten. Ihre Organisationsgrade weisen ebenso rückläufige Tendenz auf wie die Tarifbindung. Trotz dieser Erosion sind tarifvertragliche Regelungen immer noch direkt oder indirekt für fünf von sechs Beschäftigten von Bedeutung, da (Flächen-)Tarifverträge auch für nicht formal tarifgebundene Unternehmen einen wichtigen Anker der Lohnsetzung darstellen. Empirische Studien zeigen, dass die Tarifvertragsparteien und die kollektive Lohnfindung einen signifikanten Einfluss auf die effektiv gezahlten Löhne aufweisen. Meldungen über eine abnehmende Tariftreue und eine Verbandsabstinenz der Unternehmen deuten jedoch darauf hin, dass die Gestaltungsmacht der Tarifvertragsparteien mehr und mehr bedroht ist. -- In Germany, trade unions and employers associations play a role not only in wage determination but also in social affairs and labour law. While the majority of firms are organized in employers associations, less than one quarter of employees are members of a trade union. Both social partners have severe problems in recruiting and keeping members. Union and employer densities as well as bargaining coverage are falling. Despite this erosion, collective agreements are still relevant for five out of six employees because they constitute an anchor of wage setting even for those firms that are not formally bound by collective agreements. Empirical studies show that the social partners and collective bargaining exert a significant effect on wages. There are signs, however, that the power and influence of the social partners is more and more endangered.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics in its series Discussion Papers with number 34.

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Date of creation: 2005
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:faulre:34

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Keywords: Gewerkschaften; Arbeitgeberverbände; Tarifpolitik;

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  1. Kölling, Arnd & Schnabel, Claus & Wagner, Joachim, 2002. "Establishment Age and Wages: Evidence from German Linked Employer-Employee Data," IZA Discussion Papers 679, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Schnabel, Claus & Wagner, Joachim, 2003. "Trade Union Membership in Eastern and Western Germany: Convergence or Divergence?," IZA Discussion Papers 707, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Schnabel, Claus & Kohaut, Susanne & Brixy, Udo, 2004. "Do newly founded firms pay lower wages? First evidence from Germany," Discussion Papers 28, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics.
  4. Karl Brenke, 2004. "Ostdeutsche Industrie: weitgehende Abkehr von der kollektiven Lohnfindung," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 71(13), pages 152-158.
  5. Knoppik, Christoph & Beissinger, Thomas, 2001. "How Rigid are Nominal Wages? Evidence and Implications for Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 357, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Richard B. Freeman & Lawrence F. Katz, 1995. "Differences and Changes in Wage Structures," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number free95-1, May.
  7. Ulrich Kaiser & Friedhelm Pfeiffer, 2001. "Collective Wage Agreements and Firms' Employment Policies," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 15(2), pages 317-341, 06.
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Cited by:
  1. Merkl, Christian & Snower, Dennis J., 2008. "Escaping the Unemployment Trap: The Case of East Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 3681, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Antonczyk, Dirk & Fitzenberger, Bernd & Sommerfeld, Katrin, 2010. "Rising wage inequality, the decline of collective bargaining, and the gender wage gap," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 835-847, October.
  3. Schnabel, Claus & Wagner, Joachim, 2005. "Who Are the Workers Who Never Joined a Union? Empirical Evidence from Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 1658, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Christian Merkl & Dennis J. Snower, 2007. "Escaping the Unemployment Trap � The Case of East Germany," Kiel Working Papers 1309, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  5. Knut Gerlach & Gesine Stephan, 2006. "Bargaining Regimes and Wage Dispersion," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 226(6), pages 629-645, November.
  6. Eichhorst, Werner & Kaiser, Lutz C., 2006. "The German Labor Market: Still Adjusting Badly?," IZA Discussion Papers 2215, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).


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