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Tarifliche Öffnungsklauseln : Verbreitung, Inanspruchnahme und Bedeutung


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  • Kohaut, Susanne
  • Schnabel, Claus


Bei einer repräsentativen Befragung im Rahmen des IAB-Betriebspanels 2005 gaben 13 Prozent der Betriebe mit Tarifbindung an, dass für sie Öffnungsklauseln im Tarifvertrag bestehen (viele weitere wussten darüber nicht Bescheid). Rund die Hälfte dieser Betriebe hatte davon Gebrauch gemacht. Unter den genutzten Öffnungsklauseln dominierten solche zur Arbeitszeitanpassung, während Öffnungsklauseln zur Absenkung der (nominalen oder realen) Entlohnung deutlich seltener in Anspruch genommen wurden. Betriebe mit einer guten oder sehr guten Ertragslage machten seltener Gebrauch von Öffnungsklauseln beider Art. Durch eine bessere Aufklärung der Betriebe über bestehende Öffnungsklauseln sowie durch deren verstärkte Einführung könnten die Tarifparteien die Akzeptanz des deutschen Lohnfindungssystems verbessern und die Tarifflucht bremsen. -- In a representative survey conducted by the IAB Establishment Panel in 2005, 13 percent of establishments covered by collective bargaining said that there existed opening clauses in their collective agreements (many more did not know). About one-half of these establishments had made use of such opening clauses. The majority of opening clauses in use concerned working-time adjustments, whereas opening clauses that allowed reductions in (nominal or real) wages were applied less frequently. Establishments with a good or very good profit situation were less likely to make use of opening clauses of either sort. By informing establishments about existing opening clauses and by introducing additional clauses, the social partners could improve the acceptance of the German system of collective bargaining and reduce firms? propensity to leave the system.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics in its series Discussion Papers with number 41.

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Date of creation: 2006
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:faulre:41

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Keywords: Öffnungsklausel; Tarifpolitik; Lohnsenkung; Arbeitszeit;

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  1. Richard B. Freeman & Robert S. Gibbons, 1995. "Getting Together and Breaking Apart: The Decline of Centralized Collective Bargaining," NBER Chapters, in: Differences and Changes in Wage Structures, pages 345-370 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Schnabel, Claus, 2005. "Gewerkschaften und Arbeitgeberverbände: Organisationsgrade, Tarifbindung und Einflüsse auf Löhne und Beschäftigung," Discussion Papers 34, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics.
  3. Wolf Dieter Heinbach, 2005. "Impact of Opening Clauses on Bargained Wages," IAW Discussion Papers, Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW) 22, Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW).
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Cited by:
  1. Eichhorst, Werner & Marx, Paul, 2009. "Reforming German Labor Market Institutions: A Dual Path to Flexibility," IZA Discussion Papers 4100, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. John T. Addison & Alex Bryson & Paulino Teixeira & André Pahnke & Lutz Bellmann, 2011. "The State of Collective Bargaining and Worker Representation in Germany: The Erosion Continues," GEMF Working Papers 2011-09, GEMF - Faculdade de Economia, Universidade de Coimbra.
  3. Haipeter, Thomas & Lehndorff, Steffen, 2009. "Collective bargaining on employment," ILO Working Papers, International Labour Organization 433128, International Labour Organization.


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