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Bonds or Loans? The Effect of Macroeconomic Fundamentals

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  • Galina Hale

Abstract

The costs of debt crises are not invariant to the foreign debt instrument composition: bank loans or bonds. The lending boom of the 1990s witnessed considerable variation over time and across countries in the debt instrument used by emerging market (EM) borrowers. This paper tests how macroeconomic fundamentals affect the composition of international debt instruments used by EM borrowers. Analysis of micro-level data using ordered probability model shows that macroeconomic fundamentals explain a significant share of variation in the ratio of bonds to loans for private borrowers, but not for the sovereigns.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Yale School of Management in its series Yale School of Management Working Papers with number ysm343.

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Date of creation: 01 Apr 2003
Date of revision: 01 Apr 2007
Handle: RePEc:ysm:somwrk:ysm343

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Keywords: Emerging Markets; Foreign Debt; Debt Composition; Country Risk;

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  1. Buch, Claudia M, 2002. "Are Banks Different? Evidence from International Data," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(1), pages 97-114, Spring.
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  8. Hale, Galina & Santos, João A.C., 2008. "The decision to first enter the public bond market: The role of firm reputation, funding choices, and bank relationships," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1928-1940, September.
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Cited by:
  1. Paul Mizen & Serafeim Tsoukas, . "Evidence on the external finance premium from the US and emerging Asian corporate bond markets," Discussion Papers 06/04, University of Nottingham, Centre for Finance, Credit and Macroeconomics (CFCM).
  2. Barry Eichengreen & Pipat Luengnaruemitchai, 2004. "Why Doesn't Asia Have Bigger Bond Markets?," NBER Working Papers 10576, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Bussière, Matthieu & Fratzscher, Marcel & Koeniger, Winfried, 2004. "Currency mismatch, uncertainty and debt maturity structure," Working Paper Series 0409, European Central Bank.
  4. Paul Mizen & Serafeim Tsoukas, 2010. "What Effect Has Bond Market Development in Emerging Asia Had on the Issuance of Corporate Bonds?," Working Papers 182010, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
  5. Xingwang Qian & Andreas Steiner, 2012. "International Reserves and the Composition of Equity Capital Inflows," Working Papers 90, Institute of Empirical Economic Research.
  6. F. Verona & M. M. F. Martins & I. Drumond, 2013. "(Un)anticipated Monetary Policy in a DSGE Model with a Shadow Banking System," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 9(3), pages 78-124, September.
  7. Carlos Arteta & Galina Hale, 2006. "Sovereign debt crises and credit to the private sector," Working Paper Series 2006-21, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  8. Issam Hallak & Paul Schure, 2011. "Why Larger Lenders Obtain Higher Returns: Evidence from Sovereign Syndicated Loans," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 40(2), pages 427-453, 06.
  9. Claessens, Stijn & Schmukler, Sergio, 2007. "International Financial Integration through Equity Markets: Which Firms from Which Countries Go Global?," CEPR Discussion Papers 6137, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  10. Hale, Galina & Arteta, Carlos, 2009. "Currency crises and foreign credit in emerging markets: Credit crunch or demand effect?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 53(7), pages 758-774, October.
  11. Barry Eichengreen & Pipat Luengnaruemitchai, 2004. "Why Dones't Asia have the biger bond markets," Working Papers 242004, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
  12. Francis, Johanna L. & Aykut, Dilek & Tereanu, Eugen, 2014. "The cost of private debt over the credit cycle," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 146-181.
  13. Winfried Koeniger & Matthieu Bussiere & Marcel Fratzscher, 2004. "Currency Mismatch, Uncertainty and Debt Structure," Econometric Society 2004 North American Summer Meetings 181, Econometric Society.

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