Problem Bank Resolution: Evaluating the Options
AbstractThe authors describe the function of intermediation in the financial sector and the role of regulatory supervision in managing the inherent structural vulnerability of the process. Financial intermediaries provide both a risk taking and a maturity transformation function in mobilizing savings assets into productive real investments. These inherent activities create a natural structural vulnerability which regulatory oversight is intended to mitigate. The consequence of failure to effectively manage the inherent structural vulnerability can lead to "runs" in which depositors withdraw funds leading to institutional insolvency. The vulnerability to runs becomes a public policy concern when a loss of confidence in the sector leads to a contagious loss of confidence in other institutions. In response to these dangers, governments and regulators throughout the world have established "financial safety nets" to be triggered at various stages in evolving financial crises. The "safety nets" can be seen as comprising at least seven elements or separate stages in managing financial crises: 1) the chartering function screens out institution managers who would be likely to take on excessive insolvency exposure; 2) if institution managers do try to expose their institution to shocks, the prudential supervision function is established to prevent this; 3) if a shock still occurs, the termination authority removes the institution's license before too much damage is caused; 4) if losses still occur, the insurance function may prevent creditors from running; 5) if the institution closes, the insurance function may sustain the confidence of creditors at similar institutions; 6) if runs take place at other institutions, the lender of last resort function may help solvent institutions meet the claims of liability holders; and 7) if other failures occur the monetary authority may confine the damage to the institutions directly affected. The role of regulators is to return the financial structure to its position before the crisis and restore confidence in the system and should not be punitive or involve reconstruction of the system, which can wait until a later time. Solutions will differ depending on how many institutions are affected and whether the problem affects impacts on the entire system or market. There are three generic options available for problem resolution: 1) permitting continued operation under some restrictions; 2) forcing a merger with another institutions or 3) closure of some form. Within these three options are seven ways to either continue operations, force a merger or liquidate. These are: 1) forbearance - granting of time for an institution to resolve its problems; 2) capital infusion with existing management; 3) regulatory control (temporary); 4) de facto nationalization of the institutions; 5) Good-bank, Bad-bank split; 6) purchases and assumption; 7) liquidation with and without governmental assistance. The authors review and summarize the experiences in the US, Scandinavia and France where a variety of these resolution options have been recently applied. Forbearance was used in an attempt to resolve the US Thrift Crisis of the 1980s. This option did not create the desired results and the Resolution Trust Corporation was established in 1989 in order to organize the process. When Norway was faced with a major banking crisis in 1991, it nationalized the banking system. Sweden similarly infused its failing banks with capital during a crisis in 1993, effectively nationalizing them. The "good bank-bad bank" method was used extensively in the Swedish bailout. Finland's central bank took over failing banks in 1991 and the remaining ones were consolidated into one entity. The French government has bailed out troubled Credit Lyonnais, costing the government as much as 135 billion francs. From their review of foreign intervention in bank crises, the authors conclude that: 1) Costs of intervention are generally larger than anticipated; 2) Interventions aimed at preserving the current institutional structure generally do not achieve the expected outcome; and 3) The only true resolution appears to come from a change in the aggregate economy.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania in its series Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers with number 98-05.
Date of creation: Nov 1998
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: 3301 Steinberg Hall-Dietrich Hall, 3620 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104.6367
Web page: http://fic.wharton.upenn.edu/fic/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Marvin Goodfriend, 1991.
"Money, credit, banking, and payments system policy,"
Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Jan, pages 7-23.
- Selgin, G., 1993. "In Defence of Bank Suspension," Papers 367, Georgia - College of Business Administration, Department of Economics.
- Leonard I. Nakamura, 1990. "Closing troubled financial institutions: what are the issues?," Business Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, issue May, pages 15-24.
- R. Alton Gilbert, 1994.
"Federal Reserve lending to banks that failed: implications for the Bank Insurance Fund,"
Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue May, pages 229-240.
- R. Alton Gilbert, 1994. "Federal Reserve lending to banks that failed: implications for the Bank Insurance Fund," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jan, pages 3-18.
- Sally M. Davies & Douglas A. McManus, 1991. "The effects of closure policies on bank risk-taking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 158, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Eric S. Rosengren & Katerina Simons, 1994.
"Failed Bank Resolution and the Collateral Crunch: The Advantages of Adopting Transferable Puts,"
Real Estate Economics,
American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 22(1), pages 135-147.
- Eric S. Rosengren & Katerina Simons, 1992. "Failed bank resolution and the collateral crunch: the advantages of adopting transferable puts," Working Papers 92-5, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
- Davies, Sally M. & McManus, Douglas A., 1991. "The effects of closure policies on bank risk-taking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(4-5), pages 917-938, September.
- Cordella, Tito & Yeyati, Eduardo Levy, 2003.
"Bank bailouts: moral hazard vs. value effect,"
Journal of Financial Intermediation,
Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 300-330, October.
- Acharya, Viral & Song Shin, Hyun & Yorulmazer, Tanju, 2009. "Endogenous choice of bank liquidity: the role of fire sales," Bank of England working papers 376, Bank of England.
- Acharya, Viral V & Shin, Hyun Song & Yorulmazer, Tanju, 2007. "Fire Sales, Foreign Entry and Bank Liquidity," CEPR Discussion Papers 6309, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Xavier Freixas & Curzio Giannini & Glenn Hoggarth & Farouk Soussa, 2000. "Lender of Last Resort: What Have We Learned Since Bagehot?," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 18(1), pages 63-84, October.
- Mats Josefsson & Michael Andrews, 2003. "What Happens After Supervisory Intervention? Considering Bank Closure Options," IMF Working Papers 03/17, International Monetary Fund.
- X. Freixas, 2000.
"Optimal Bail Out Policy, Conditionality and Constructive Ambiguity,"
DNB Staff Reports (discontinued)
49, Netherlands Central Bank.
- Xavier Freixas, 1999. "Optimal bail out policy, conditionality and constructive ambiguity," Economics Working Papers 400, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
- Kane, Edward J., 2001. "Dynamic inconsistency of capital forbearance: Long-run vs. short-run effects of too-big-to-fail policymaking," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 281-299, August.
- Yorulmazer, Tanju, 2003. "Herd Behavior, Bank Runs and Information Disclosure," MPRA Paper 9513, University Library of Munich, Germany.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Thomas Krichel).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.