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Engendering trade

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Author Info

  • Do, Quy-Toan
  • Levchenko, Andrei A.
  • Raddatz, Claudio

Abstract

The authors analyze the interaction between a country's world market integration and its attitude towards gender roles. They discuss both theoretically and empirically how female empowerment is a source of comparative advantage that shapes a country's response to trade opening. Reciprocally, the authors show that as countries integrate into the world economy, the costs and benefits of gender discrimination shift. Their theory goes beyond a potential aggregate wealth effect associated with trade opening, and emphasizes the heterogeneity of impacts. On the one hand, countries in which women are empowered -- measured by fertility rates, female labor force participation or female schooling -- experience an expansion of industries that use female labor relatively more intensively. On the other hand, the gender gap is smaller in countries that export more in relatively female-labor intensive sectors. In an increasingly globalized economy, the road to gender equality is paradoxically very specific to each country’s productive structure and exposure to world markets.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 5777.

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Date of creation: 01 Aug 2011
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:5777

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Related research

Keywords: Labor Markets; Labor Policies; Gender and Development; Economic Theory&Research; Political Economy;

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References

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  1. Michelle Rendall, 2010. "Brain versus brawn: the realization of women's comparative advantage," IEW - Working Papers 491, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
  2. Joao Santos Silva & Silvana Tenreyro, 2005. "The Log of Gravity," CEP Discussion Papers dp0701, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  3. Elhanan Helpman & Marc Melitz & Yona Rubinstein, 2006. "Trading Partners and Trading Volumes," DEGIT Conference Papers c011_022, DEGIT, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade.
  4. Matias Braun & Claudio Raddatz, 2008. "The Politics of Financial Development: Evidence from Trade Liberalization," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(3), pages 1469-1508, 06.
  5. Alesina, Alberto F & Giuliano, Paola & Nunn, Nathan, 2011. "Fertility and the Plough," CEPR Discussion Papers 8261, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Elhanan Helpman & Marc Melitz & Yona Rubinstein, 2008. "Estimating Trade Flows: Trading Partners and Trading Volumes," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 123(2), pages 441-487, 05.
  7. Rubén Segura-Cayuela, 2006. "Inefficient policies, inefficient institutions and trade," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 0633, Banco de Espa�a.
  8. Andrei A. Levchenko, 2004. "Institutional Quality and International Trade," IMF Working Papers 04/231, International Monetary Fund.
  9. Mark M. Pitt & Mark R. Rosenzweig & Mohammad Nazmul Hassan, 2012. "Human Capital Investment and the Gender Division of Labor in a Brawn-Based Economy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(7), pages 3531-60, December.
  10. Remco H. Oostendorp, 2009. "Globalization and the Gender Wage Gap," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 23(1), pages 141-161, January.
  11. Oded Galor & David N. Weil, 1993. "The Gender Gap, Fertility, and Growth," NBER Working Papers 4550, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Do, Quy-Toan & Levchenko, Andrei A., 2006. "Comparative advantage, demand for external finance, and financial development," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3889, The World Bank.
  13. John Romalis, 2004. "Factor Proportions and the Structure of Commodity Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 67-97, March.
  14. Ernesto Aguayo-Tellez & Jim Airola & Chinhui Juhn, 2010. "Did Trade Liberalization Help Women? The Case of Mexico in the 1990s," NBER Working Papers 16195, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Qian, Nancy, 2006. "Missing Women and the Price of Tea in China: The Effect of Sex-Specific Earnings on Sex Imbalance," CEPR Discussion Papers 5986, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  16. Mark M. Pitt & Mark Rosenzweig & Nazmul Hassan, 2010. "Human Capital Investment and the Gender Division of Labor," Working Papers 989, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Chinhui Juhn & Gergely Ujhelyi & Carolina Villegas-Sanchez, 2012. "Men, Women, and Machines: How Trade Impacts Gender Inequality," NBER Working Papers 18106, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Silvio Contessi & Francesca de Nicola & Li Li, 2012. "International trade, female labor, and entrepreneurship in MENA countries," Working Papers 2012-053, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  3. Minh Quang Dao, 2013. "Gender Gaps in Human Capital and Economic Growth in Developing Countries," Review of Economics & Finance, Better Advances Press, Canada, vol. 3, pages 91-98, November.

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