International trade, female labor, and entrepreneurship in MENA countries
AbstractMiddle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries stand out in international comparisons of de jure obstacles to female employment and entrepreneurship. These obstacles are mirrored in low female labor rate participation and low entrepreneurship and ownership rates. Recent research suggests a connection between international trade and female labor participation. In this article, the authors focus on the relationship between international trade and gender in the MENA countries first analyzing female labor as a production factor, and then focusing on female entrepreneurship and firm ownership. Using country and industry-level data the authors identify countries and industries characterized by comparative advantage in female-labor. They find suggestive evidence that there is a strict link between a country specialization and its measures of female labor participation consistent with theories of brain-based technological bias. Using firm-level data, the authors then study whether trade empowers female entrepreneurs in countries-industries that exhibit comparative advantage. The authors conclude that evidence supports the view that exposure to trade affects disproportionately firms in country-industries with a comparative advantage in female labor – both in terms of female employment and female entrepreneurship and ownership – in the MENA countries and for the period they study.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis in its series Working Papers with number 2012-053.
Date of creation: 2012
Date of revision:
Other versions of this item:
- Contessi, Silvio & Nicola, Francesca de & Li, Li, 2013. "International trade, female labor, and entrepreneurship in MENA countries," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jan, pages 89-114.
- NEP-ALL-2012-11-17 (All new papers)
- NEP-ARA-2012-11-17 (MENA - Middle East & North Africa)
- NEP-ENT-2012-11-17 (Entrepreneurship)
- NEP-LAB-2012-11-17 (Labour Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Quy-Toan Do & Andrei A. Levchenko & Claudio Raddatz, .
"Comparative Advantage, International Trade, and Fertility,"
624, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
- Do, Quy-Toan & Levchenko, Andrei & Raddatz, Claudio, 2014. "Comparative advantage, international trade, and fertility," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6930, The World Bank.
- Do, Quy-Toan & Levchenko, Andrei A., 2007.
"Comparative advantage, demand for external finance, and financial development,"
Journal of Financial Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 86(3), pages 796-834, December.
- Do, Quy-Toan & Levchenko, Andrei A., 2006. "Comparative advantage, demand for external finance, and financial development," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3889, The World Bank.
- Leonardi, Marco, 2005.
"Firm Heterogeneity in Capital labor Ratios and Wage Inequality,"
Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series
qt1g9514wh, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
- Marco Leonardi, 2007. "Firm heterogeneity in capital-labour ratios and wage inequality," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(518), pages 375-398, 03.
- Leonardi, Marco, 2003. "Firms' Heterogeneity in Capital/Labor Ratios and Wage Inequality," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2003 136, Royal Economic Society.
- Leonardi, Marco, 2003. "Firm Heterogeneity in Capital/Labor Ratios and Wage Inequality," IZA Discussion Papers 909, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Hosny Zoabi & Philip Saure, 2010.
"Effects of Trade on Female Labor Force Participation,"
DEGIT Conference Papers
c015_015, DEGIT, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade.
- Philip Sauré & Hosny Zoabi, 2009. "Effects of Trade on Female Labor Force Participation," Working Papers 2009-12, Swiss National Bank.
- Hallward-Driemeier, Mary & Aterido, Reyes, 2009. "Comparing Apples with....Apples : how to make (more) sense of subjective rankings of constraints to business," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5054, The World Bank.
- Jonathan Vogel & Ariel Burstein, 2012. "International trade, technology, and the skill premium," 2012 Meeting Papers 664, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Almeida, Heitor & Wolfenzon, Daniel, 2005. "The effect of external finance on the equilibrium allocation of capital," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(1), pages 133-164, January.
- James Harrigan & Ariell Reshef, 2011. "Skill Biased Heterogeneous Firms, Trade Liberalization, and the Skill Premium," NBER Working Papers 17604, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ernesto Aguayo-Tellez & Jim Airola & Chinhui Juhn, 2010. "Did Trade Liberalization Help Women? The Case of Mexico in the 1990s," NBER Working Papers 16195, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Galor, Oded & Weil, David, 1995.
"The Gender Gap, Fertility and Growth,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
1157, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Michelle Rendall, 2010.
"Brain versus Brawn: The Realization of Women's Comparative Advantage,"
2010 Meeting Papers
926, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Michelle Rendall, 2010. "Brain versus brawn: the realization of women's comparative advantage," IEW - Working Papers 491, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
- Do, Quy-Toan & Levchenko, Andrei A. & Raddatz, Claudio, 2011. "Engendering trade," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5777, The World Bank.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Anna Xiao).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.