Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

The Productivity Effects of Stock Option Schemes: Evidence from Finnish Panel Data

Contents:

Author Info

  • Jones, Derek C.
  • Kalmi, Panu
  • Mäkinen, Mikko

Abstract

While theorists differ sharply on the expected economic impact of stock options, typically empirical work has found a positive association between option schemes and firm productivity. However, existing data are limited and may not enable reliable investigation of the productivity effects of different types of option scheme. New panel data for all Finnish publicly listed firms during 1992-2002 enable us to distinguish plans that are broad based and others limited to particular employees and address issues of endogeneity concerning inputs and options. Diverse specifications are estimated including dynamic panel data models with a GMM estimator. For broad-based option scheme indicators the key result is that different estimators consistently find statistically insignificant associations with firm productivity. For selective option schemes, the baseline fixed effects estimator suggests a 2.1-2.4% positive and statistically significant effect of a dilution indicator on firm productivity. However, in empirical models in which endogeneity and dynamics are taken into account, no evidence is found of a link with firm productivity. Thus our findings are consistent with hypotheses that predict negligible effects of option plans for enterprise performance, such as those based on free riding, or psychological expectancy theory or accounting myopia. However, by finding weak evidence for productivity effects of targeted schemes (and none for broad-based plans) our findings tend not to support hypotheses based on managerial rent seeking.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://www.etla.fi/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/dp1026.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy in its series Discussion Papers with number 1026.

as in new window
Length: 36 pages
Date of creation: 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:rif:dpaper:1026

Contact details of provider:
Postal: Lönnrotinkatu 4 B, FIN-00120 HELSINKI
Phone: +358 (0)9 609 900
Fax: +358 (0)9 601 753
Web page: http://www.etla.fi/
More information through EDIRC

Order Information:
Email:

Related research

Keywords: personnel economics; stock options; productivity; panel data;

Other versions of this item:

Find related papers by JEL classification:

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Arya, Anil & Mittendorf, Brian, 2005. "Offering stock options to gauge managerial talent," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1-3), pages 189-210, December.
  2. Martin J. Conyon & Richard B. Freeman, 2002. "Shared modes of compensation and firm performance: UK evidence," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 20060, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  3. Steve Bond, 2002. "Dynamic panel data models: a guide to microdata methods and practice," CeMMAP working papers CWP09/02, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  4. David M. Drukker, 2003. "Testing for serial correlation in linear panel-data models," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 3(2), pages 168-177, June.
  5. Bhargava, A & Franzini, L & Narendranathan, W, 1982. "Serial Correlation and the Fixed Effects Model," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(4), pages 533-49, October.
  6. Oyer, Paul, 2001. "Why Do Firms Use Incentives That Have No Incentive Effects?," Research Papers 1686, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
  7. Kandel, Eugene & Lazear, Edward P, 1992. "Peer Pressure and Partnerships," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(4), pages 801-17, August.
  8. Richard Blundell & Stephen Bond, 2000. "GMM Estimation with persistent panel data: an application to production functions," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 321-340.
  9. Derek C. Jones & Jeffrey Pliskin, 1988. "The Effects of Worker Participation, Employee Ownership and Profit Sharing on Economics Performance: A Partial Review," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_13, Levy Economics Institute.
  10. Bergman, Nittai K. & Jenter, Dirk, 2007. "Employee sentiment and stock option compensation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(3), pages 667-712, June.
  11. Blundell, R. & Bond, S., 1995. "Initial Conditions and Moment Restrictions in Dynamic Panel Data Models," Economics Papers 104, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
  12. Jones, Derek C. & Kalmi, Panu & Mäkinen, Mikko, 2004. "The Determinants of Stock Option Compensation: Evidence from Finland," Discussion Papers 957, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  13. Richard B. Freeman & Douglas L. Kruse & Joseph R. Blasi, 2010. "Worker Responses to Shirking under Shared Capitalism," NBER Chapters, in: Shared Capitalism at Work: Employee Ownership, Profit and Gain Sharing, and Broad-based Stock Options, pages 77-103 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Zvi Griliches & Jacques Mairesse, 1995. "Production Functions: The Search for Identification," NBER Working Papers 5067, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Murphy, Kevin J., 1999. "Executive compensation," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 38, pages 2485-2563 Elsevier.
  16. Wadhwani, S. & Wall, M., 1988. "The Effects Of Profit-Sharing On Employment, Wages, Stock Returns And Productivity: Evidence From Uk Micro-Data," Papers 311, London School of Economics - Centre for Labour Economics.
  17. Hanlon, Michelle & Rajgopal, Shivaram & Shevlin, Terry, 2003. "Are executive stock options associated with future earnings?," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1-3), pages 3-43, December.
  18. Djankov, Simeon & Murrell, Peter, 2002. "Enterprise Restructuring in Transition: A Quantitative Survey," CEPR Discussion Papers 3319, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  19. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
  20. Armen A. Alchian & Harold Demsetz, 1971. "Production, Information Costs and Economic Organizations," UCLA Economics Working Papers 10A, UCLA Department of Economics.
  21. David Roodman, 2006. "How to Do xtabond2," North American Stata Users' Group Meetings 2006 8, Stata Users Group.
  22. Conte, Michael A. & Svejnar, Jan, 1988. "Productivity effects of worker participation in management, profit-sharing, worker ownership of assets and unionization in U.S. firms," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 139-151, March.
  23. John E. Core & Wayne R. Guay & David F. Larcker, 2003. "Executive equity compensation and incentives: a survey," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Apr, pages 27-50.
  24. Jones, Derek C & Kato, Takao, 1995. "The Productivity Effects of Employee Stock-Ownership Plans and Bonuses: Evidence from Japanese Panel Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 391-414, June.
  25. Cable, John & Wilson, Nicholas, 1990. "Profit-Sharing and Productivity: Some Further Evidence," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 100(401), pages 550-55, June.
  26. Brian J. Hall, 1998. "The Pay to Performance Incentives of Executive Stock Options," NBER Working Papers 6674, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  27. Kauhanen, Antti & Piekkola, Hannu, 2002. "Profit Sharing in Finland: Earnings and Productivity Effects," Discussion Papers 817, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  28. David Lebow & Louise Sheiner & Larry Slifman & Martha Starr-McCluer, 1999. "Recent trends in compensation practices," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1999-32, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  29. Kruse, Douglas L, 1992. "Profit Sharing and Productivity: Microeconomic Evidence from the United States," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 102(410), pages 24-36, January.
  30. Eva Liljeblom & Daniel Pasternack, 2006. "Share Repurchases, Dividends and Executive Options: the Effect of Dividend Protection," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 12(1), pages 7-28.
  31. Richard Blundell & Steve Bond & Frank Windmeijer, 2000. "Estimation in dynamic panel data models: improving on the performance of the standard GMM estimator," IFS Working Papers W00/12, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  32. Frank Windmeijer, 1998. "Efficiency comparisons for a system GMM estimator in dynamic panel data models," IFS Working Papers W98/01, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  33. Seppo Ikaheimo & Anders Kjellman & Jan Holmberg & Sari Jussila, 2004. "Employee stock option plans and stock market reaction: evidence from Finland," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(2), pages 105-122.
  34. Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
  35. Bebchuk, Lucian A. & Fried, Jesse M., 2003. "Executive Compensation as an Agency Problem," Berkeley Olin Program in Law & Economics, Working Paper Series qt81q3136r, Berkeley Olin Program in Law & Economics.
  36. Brian J. Hall & Kevin J. Murphy, 2003. "The Trouble with Stock Options," NBER Working Papers 9784, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  37. Bebchuk, Lucian Arye & Fried, Jesse, 2003. "Executive Compensation as an Agency Problem," CEPR Discussion Papers 3961, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  38. Badi H. Baltagi & Chihwa Kao, 2000. "Nonstationary Panels, Cointegration in Panels and Dynamic Panels: A Survey," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 16, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
  39. Inderst, Roman & Mueller, Holger M, 2005. "Benefits of Broad-based Option Pay," CEPR Discussion Papers 4878, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  40. Brian J. Hall & Kevin J. Murphy, 2003. "The Trouble with Stock Options," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 17(3), pages 49-70, Summer.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Mäkinen, Mikko, 2007. "Do Stock Opiton Schemes Affect Technical Inefficiency? Evidence from Finland," Discussion Papers 1085, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  2. Md. Shakil Ahmed & M. Daud Ahmed, 2013. "Efficiency Variation of Manufacturing Firms: A Case Study of Seafood Processing Firms in Bangladesh," Review of Economics & Finance, Better Advances Press, Canada, vol. 3, pages 45-56, May.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:rif:dpaper:1026. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Kaija Hyvönen-Rajecki).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.