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India's Mysterious Manufacturing Miracle

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  • Pete Klenow

    (Stanford University)

  • Gunjan Sharma

    (University of Missouri)

  • Albert Bollard

    (Stanford University)

Abstract

Using data on formal manufacturing plants in India, we report a large but imprecise acceleration in productivity growth starting around the mid-1990s (e.g., 1993-2004 compared to 1980-1992). We trace the acceleration to productivity growth within large plants (200 workers or more), as opposed to reallocation across such plants. As many economists believe Indian reforms during this era improved resource allocation, the absence of a growth pickup from reallocation is surprising. Moreover, when we look across industries we fail to robustly relate productivity growth to prominent reforms such as industrial de-licensing, tariff reductions, FDI liberalization, or lifting of small-scale industry reservations. Even under a generous reading of their effects, these reforms (at least as we measure them) seem to account for less than one-quarter of overall productivity growth.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Society for Economic Dynamics in its series 2011 Meeting Papers with number 1176.

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Date of creation: 2011
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Handle: RePEc:red:sed011:1176

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References

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  1. John Fernald & Brent Neiman, 2006. "Measuring the miracle: market imperfections and Asia's growth experience," Working Paper Series 2006-17, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  2. Chang, Tai Hsieh & Peter, J- Klenow, 2007. "Misallocation and manufacturing TFP in China and India," MPRA Paper 35084, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 15 Jun 2007.
  3. Ann E. Harrison & Leslie A. Martin & Shanthi Nataraj, 2011. "Learning Versus Stealing: How Important are Market-Share Reallocations to India's Productivity Growth?," NBER Working Papers 16733, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Petia Topalova & Nina Pavcnik & Amit Khandelwal & Penny Goldberg, 2009. "Multi-product Firms and Product Turnover in the Developing World: Evidence from India," 2009 Meeting Papers 176, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  5. Sivadasan Jagadeesh, 2009. "Barriers to Competition and Productivity: Evidence from India," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 9(1), pages 1-66, September.
  6. Andrew Atkeson & Ariel Burstein, 2007. "Innovation, firm dynamics, and international trade," NBER Working Papers 13326, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Panagariya, Arvind, 2011. "India: The Emerging Giant," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199751563.
  8. Lucia Foster & John Haltiwanger & Chad Syverson, 2005. "Reallocation, Firm Turnover, and Efficiency: Selection on Productivity or Profitability?," NBER Working Papers 11555, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Amil Petrin & Jerome Reiter & Kirk White, 2011. "The Impact of Plant-level Resource Reallocations and Technical Progress on U.S. Macroeconomic Growth," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 14(1), pages 3-26, January.
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  13. Chamarbagwala, Rubiana & Sharma, Gunjan, 2011. "Industrial de-licensing, trade liberalization, and skill upgrading in India," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(2), pages 314-336, November.
  14. Pinelopi K. Goldberg & Amit Khandelwal & Nina Pavcnik & Petia Topalova, 2008. "Imported Intermediate Inputs and Domestic Product Growth: Evidence from India," NBER Working Papers 14416, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Chang-Tai Hsieh & Peter J. Klenow, 2012. "The Life Cycle of Plants in India and Mexico," NBER Working Papers 18133, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Maxim Pinkovskiy & Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 2009. "Parametric Estimations of the World Distribution of Income," NBER Working Papers 15433, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Susanto Basu & John G. Fernald, 1996. "Returns to scale in U.S. production: estimates and implications," International Finance Discussion Papers 546, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  18. Marc J. Melitz, 2003. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(6), pages 1695-1725, November.
  19. Laura Alfaro & Anusha Chari, 2009. "India Transformed? Insights from the Firm Level 1988-2005," NBER Working Papers 15448, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Basu, Susanto & Fernald, John G., 2002. "Aggregate productivity and aggregate technology," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(6), pages 963-991, June.
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  23. Bulent Unel, 2003. "Productivity Trends in India's Manufacturing Sectors in the Last Two Decades," IMF Working Papers 03/22, International Monetary Fund.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Dutz, Mark A., 2013. "Resource reallocation and innovation : converting enterprise risks into opportunities," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6534, The World Bank.
  2. Didier, Tatiana & Schmukler, Sergio L., 2013. "The financing and growth of firms in China and India : evidence from capital markets," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6401, The World Bank.
  3. Nitin Gupta, 2012. "The Evolution of Manufacturing Efficiency: Evidence from Indian States," ASARC Working Papers 2012-13, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.
  4. Ghani, Ejaz & O'Connell, Stephen D. & Sharma, Gunjan, 2013. "Friend or foe or family ? a tale of formal and informal plants in India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6588, The World Bank.
  5. Manuel García-Santana, 2013. "Foreign Firms, Distribution of Income, and the Welfare of Developing Countries," 2013 Meeting Papers 1044, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  6. Ghani, Ejaz & Kerr, William R. & O'Connell, Stephen D., 2013. "Input usage and productivity in Indian manufacturing plants," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6656, The World Bank.
  7. Ghani, Ejaz & Kerr, William R. & O'Connell, Stephen D., 2013. "The exceptional persistence of India's unorganized sector," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6454, The World Bank.
  8. Benjamin Bridgman & Michael Maio & James A. Schmitz, Jr., 2012. "What ever happened to the Puerto Rican sugar manufacturing industry?," Staff Report 477, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  9. Javad Sadeghzadeh, 2014. "Innovation Subsidies: Misallocation and Technology Upgrade," 2014 Papers psa1207, Job Market Papers.
  10. Dutz, Mark A. & Kessides, Ioannis & O'Connell, Stephen & Willig, Robert D., 2011. "Competition and innovation-driven inclusive growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5852, The World Bank.
  11. Felipe Meza & Sangeeta Pratap & Carlos Urrutia, 2014. "Credit, Sectoral Misallocation and TFP: The Case of Mexico 2003-2010," Working Papers 1402, Centro de Investigacion Economica, ITAM.
  12. Arnold, Jens Matthias & Javorcik, Beata & Lipscomb, Molly & Mattoo, Aaditya, 2012. "Services reform and manufacturing performance : evidence from India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5948, The World Bank.
  13. Suparna Chakraborty & Keisuke Otsu, 2012. "Deconstructing Growth - A Business Cycle Accounting Approach with application to BRICs," Studies in Economics 1212, Department of Economics, University of Kent.
  14. Fernandes, Ana M. & Sharma, Gunjan, 2012. "Together we stand ? agglomeration in Indian manufacturing," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6062, The World Bank.

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