The Influence of Social Pressure and Nationality on Individual Decisions: Evidence from the Behaviour of Referees
AbstractThis study considers the influences on agents’ decisions in an international context. Using data from five seasons of European cup football matches it is found that referees favour home teams when awarding yellow and red cards. Previous research on referee decisions in national leagues has identified social pressure as a key reason for favouritism. While social pressure is also found to be an important influence in this study, the international setting shows that nationality is another important influence on the decision-making of referees. In considering principal-agent relationships account needs to be taken not only of how agents (referees) decide under social pressure but also of how national identity shapes agents’ decision making.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Centre for Econometric Research in its series NCER Working Paper Series with number 46.
Length: 30 pages
Date of creation: 13 Oct 2009
Date of revision:
social pressure; nationality; decision-making; referee home bias; football;
Other versions of this item:
- Dawson, Peter & Dobson, Stephen, 2010. "The influence of social pressure and nationality on individual decisions: Evidence from the behaviour of referees," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 181-191, April.
- Peter Dawson & Stephen Dobson, 2008. "The influence of social pressure and nationality on individual decisions: evidence from the behaviour of referees," Working Papers 2008/14, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham Business School, Economics Division.
- Peter Dawson & Stephen Dobson, 2008. "The Influence of Social Pressure and Nationality on Individual Decisions: Evidence from the Behaviour of Referees," Working Papers 0809, International Association of Sports Economists & North American Association of Sports Economists.
- D81 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
- L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Recreation; Tourism
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- George A. Akerlof & Rachel E. Kranton, 2000. "Economics And Identity," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 115(3), pages 715-753, August.
- Babatunde Buraimo & David Forrest & Robert Simmons, 2007. "The Twelfth Man? Refereeing Bias in English and German Soccer," Working Papers 0707, International Association of Sports Economists & North American Association of Sports Economists.
- Price, Joseph & Wolfers, Justin, 2007.
"Racial Discrimination Among NBA Referees,"
IZA Discussion Papers
2863, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Sutter, Matthias & Kocher, Martin G., 2004.
"Favoritism of agents - The case of referees' home bias,"
Journal of Economic Psychology,
Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 461-469, August.
- Matthias Sutter & Martin G. Kocher, . "Favoritism of agents – The case of referees’ home bias," Papers on Strategic Interaction 2002-28, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Strategic Interaction Group.
- Ignacio Palacios-Huerta, 2003.
"Professionals Play Minimax,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Oxford University Press, vol. 70(2), pages 395-415.
- Vincenzo Scoppa, 2008.
"Are subjective evaluations biased by social factors or connections? An econometric analysis of soccer referee decisions,"
Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 123-140, August.
- Scoppa, Vincenzo, 2008. "Are Subjective Evaluations Biased by Social Factors or Connections? An Econometric Analysis of Soccer Referee Decisions," MPRA Paper 15819, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Benno Torgler, 2004. "The Economics of the FIFA Football Worldcup," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(2), pages 287-300, 05.
- George A. Akerlof & Rachel E. Kranton, 2005. "Identity and the Economics of Organizations," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 19(1), pages 9-32, Winter.
- George A. Akerlof, 1997. "Social Distance and Social Decisions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(5), pages 1005-1028, September.
- Neil Rickman & Robert Witt, 2008.
"Favouritism and Financial Incentives: A Natural Experiment,"
London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 75(298), pages 296-309, 05.
- Robert Witt & Neil Rickman, 2005. "Favouritism and financial incentives: A natural experiment," School of Economics Discussion Papers 0105, School of Economics, University of Surrey.
- Rickman, Neil & Witt, Robert, 2005. "Favouritism and Financial Incentives: A Natural Experiment," CEPR Discussion Papers 4968, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Dohmen, Thomas, 2008.
"The influence of social forces: evidence from the behavior of football referees,"
Open Access publications from Maastricht University
urn:nbn:nl:ui:27-19043, Maastricht University.
- Thomas J. Dohmen, 2008. "The Influence Of Social Forces: Evidence From The Behavior Of Football Referees," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 46(3), pages 411-424, 07.
- Clement, Robert C & McCormick, Robert E, 1989. "Coaching Team Production," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 27(2), pages 287-304, April.
- Luis Garicano & Ignacio Palacios-Huerta & Canice Prendergast, 2001.
"Favoritism Under Social Pressure,"
2001-16, Brown University, Department of Economics.
- Per Pettersson-Lidbom & Mikael Priks, 2007.
"Behavior under Social Pressure: Empty Italian Stadiums and Referee Bias,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
1960, CESifo Group Munich.
- Pettersson-Lidbom, Per & Priks, Mikael, 2010. "Behavior under social pressure: Empty Italian stadiums and referee bias," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 108(2), pages 212-214, August.
- P.-A. Chiappori, 2002. "Testing Mixed-Strategy Equilibria When Players Are Heterogeneous: The Case of Penalty Kicks in Soccer," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(4), pages 1138-1151, September.
- Nuria Calvo & Paolo Rungo, 2010. "Analysis of Emerging Barriers for e-Learning Models: An Empirical Study," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(4), pages 33-44.
- Andrés J. Picazo-Tadeo & Francisco González-Gómez & Jorge Guardiola, 2011. "The importance of time in referee home bias due to social pressure. Evidence from Spanish football," FEG Working Paper Series 03/11, Faculty of Economics and Business (University of Granada).
- Andrés Picazo-Tadeo & Francisco Gónzalez-Gómez & Jorge Guardiola Wanden-Berghe, 2011. "Referee home bias due to social pressure. Evidence from Spanish football," Working Papers 1119, Department of Applied Economics II, Universidad de Valencia.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (School of Economics and Finance) The email address of this maintainer does not seem to be valid anymore. Please ask School of Economics and Finance to update the entry or send us the correct address.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.