Referee Bias and Stoppage Time in Major League Soccer: A Partially Adaptive Approach
AbstractThis study extends prior research on referee bias and close bias in professional soccer by examining whether Major League Soccer (MLS) referees’ discretion over stoppage time (i.e., extra play beyond regulation) is influenced by end-of-regulation match scores and/or home field advantage. To do so, we employ a grouped-data regression model and a partially adaptive model. Both account for the imprecise measurement in reported stoppage time. For the 2011 season we find no home field advantage. In fact, stoppage time is the same with a one or two goal deficit at the end of regulation, regardless of which team is ahead. However, the 2011 results do point to an increase in stoppage time of 12 to 20 seconds for nationally televised matches. For the 2012 season, the nationally televised effect disappears due to an increase in stoppage time for those matches not nationally televised. However, a home field advantage is present. Facing a one-goal deficit at the end of regulation, the home team receives about 33 seconds more stoppage time than a visiting team facing the same deficit.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by MDPI, Open Access Journal in its journal Econometrics.
Volume (Year): 2 (2014)
Issue (Month): 1 (February)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.mdpi.com/
partially adaptive estimation; referee bias; close bias; grouped-data regression;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- B23 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - History of Economic Thought since 1925 - - - Econometrics; Quantitative and Mathematical Studies
- C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods
- C00 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - General - - - General
- C01 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - General - - - Econometrics
- C1 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General
- C2 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables
- C3 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables
- C4 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics
- C5 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling
- C8 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Pettersson-Lidbom, Per & Priks, Mikael, 2010.
"Behavior under social pressure: Empty Italian stadiums and referee bias,"
Elsevier, vol. 108(2), pages 212-214, August.
- Per Pettersson-Lidbom & Mikael Priks, 2007. "Behavior under Social Pressure: Empty Italian Stadiums and Referee Bias," CESifo Working Paper Series 1960, CESifo Group Munich.
- Peter Dawson & Stephen Dobson, 2009.
"The Influence of Social Pressure and Nationality on Individual Decisions: Evidence from the Behaviour of Referees,"
NCER Working Paper Series
46, National Centre for Econometric Research.
- Dawson, Peter & Dobson, Stephen, 2010. "The influence of social pressure and nationality on individual decisions: Evidence from the behaviour of referees," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 181-191, April.
- Peter Dawson & Stephen Dobson, 2008. "The Influence of Social Pressure and Nationality on Individual Decisions: Evidence from the Behaviour of Referees," Working Papers 0809, International Association of Sports Economists & North American Association of Sports Economists.
- Peter Dawson & Stephen Dobson, 2008. "The influence of social pressure and nationality on individual decisions: evidence from the behaviour of referees," Working Papers 2008/14, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham Business School, Economics Division.
- Bartolucci, F. & Scaccia, L., 2005. "The use of mixtures for dealing with non-normal regression errors," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 48(4), pages 821-834, April.
- Robert Witt & Neil Rickman, 2005.
"Favouritism and financial incentives: A natural experiment,"
School of Economics Discussion Papers
0105, School of Economics, University of Surrey.
- Neil Rickman & Robert Witt, 2008. "Favouritism and Financial Incentives: A Natural Experiment," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 75(298), pages 296-309, 05.
- Rickman, Neil & Witt, Robert, 2005. "Favouritism and Financial Incentives: A Natural Experiment," CEPR Discussion Papers 4968, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Sutter, Matthias & Kocher, Martin G., 2004.
"Favoritism of agents - The case of referees' home bias,"
Journal of Economic Psychology,
Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 461-469, August.
- Matthias Sutter & Martin G. Kocher, . "Favoritism of agents – The case of referees’ home bias," Papers on Strategic Interaction 2002-28, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Strategic Interaction Group.
- Sutter, Matthias & Kocher, Martin G., 2004. "Favoritism of agents - The case of referees' home bias," Munich Reprints in Economics 18180, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
- Butler, Richard J, et al, 1990. "Robust and Partially Adaptive Estimation of Regression Models," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 321-27, May.
- Thanasis Stengos & Ximing Wu, 2005. "Partially Adaptive Estimation via Maximum Entropy Densities," University of Cyprus Working Papers in Economics 6-2005, University of Cyprus Department of Economics.
- Vincenzo Scoppa, 2008.
"Are subjective evaluations biased by social factors or connections? An econometric analysis of soccer referee decisions,"
Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 123-140, August.
- Scoppa, Vincenzo, 2008. "Are Subjective Evaluations Biased by Social Factors or Connections? An Econometric Analysis of Soccer Referee Decisions," MPRA Paper 15819, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Phillips, Robert F., 1994. "Partially adaptive estimation via a normal mixture," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1-2), pages 123-144.
- Phillips, Robert F., 1991. "A constrained maximum-likelihood approach to estimating switching regressions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1-2), pages 241-262.
- McDonald, James B., 1996. "An application and comparison of some flexible parametric and semi-parametric qualitative response models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 145-152, November.
- McDonald, James B. & Xu, Yexiao J., 1996. "A comparison of semi-parametric and partially adaptive estimators of the censored regression model with possibly skewed and leptokurtic error distributions," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 153-159, May.
- Luis Garicano & Ignacio Palacios & Canice Prendergast, 2001.
"Favoritism Under Social Pressure,"
NBER Working Papers
8376, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Babatunde Buraimo & Rob Simmons & Marek Maciaszczyk, 2012. "Favoritism And Referee Bias In European Soccer: Evidence From The Spanish League And The Uefa Champions League," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 30(3), pages 329-343, 07.
- Stewart, Mark B, 1983.
"On Least Squares Estimation When the Dependent Variable Is Grouped,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(4), pages 737-53, October.
- Mark B. Stewart, 1982. "On Least Squares Estimation When the Dependent Variable is Grouped," Working Papers 539, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Stewart, Mark B, 1982. "On Least Squares Estimation when the Dependent Variable is Grouped," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 207, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
- Joseph Price & Marc Remer & Daniel F. Stone, 2012. "Subperfect Game: Profitable Biases of NBA Referees," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(1), pages 271-300, 03.
- Beard, T Randolph & Caudill, Steven B & Gropper, Daniel M, 1991. "Finite Mixture Estimation of Multiproduct Cost Functions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 73(4), pages 654-64, November.
- Babatunde Buraimo & David Forrest & Robert Simmons, 2010. "The 12th man?: refereeing bias in English and German soccer," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 173(2), pages 431-449.
- Thomas J. Dohmen, 2008. "The Influence Of Social Forces: Evidence From The Behavior Of Football Referees," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 46(3), pages 411-424, 07.
- Caudill, Steven B., 1992. "More on grouping coarseness in linear normal regression models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 407-417, June.
- Ximing Wu & Thanasis Stengos, 2005. "Partially adaptive estimation via the maximum entropy densities," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 8(3), pages 352-366, December.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (XML Conversion Team).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.