Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Referee Bias and Stoppage Time in Major League Soccer: A Partially Adaptive Approach

Contents:

Author Info

  • Katherine G. Yewell

    ()
    (Department of Economics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37212, USA)

  • Steven B. Caudill

    ()
    (Department of Economics, Rhodes College, Memphis, TN 38112, USA
    Department of Economics (Regions Bank Professor Emeritus), Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA)

  • Franklin G. Mixon, Jr.

    ()
    (Center for Economic Education, Columbus State University, Columbus, GA 31907, USA)

Abstract

This study extends prior research on referee bias and close bias in professional soccer by examining whether Major League Soccer (MLS) referees’ discretion over stoppage time (i.e., extra play beyond regulation) is influenced by end-of-regulation match scores and/or home field advantage. To do so, we employ a grouped-data regression model and a partially adaptive model. Both account for the imprecise measurement in reported stoppage time. For the 2011 season we find no home field advantage. In fact, stoppage time is the same with a one or two goal deficit at the end of regulation, regardless of which team is ahead. However, the 2011 results do point to an increase in stoppage time of 12 to 20 seconds for nationally televised matches. For the 2012 season, the nationally televised effect disappears due to an increase in stoppage time for those matches not nationally televised. However, a home field advantage is present. Facing a one-goal deficit at the end of regulation, the home team receives about 33 seconds more stoppage time than a visiting team facing the same deficit.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://www.mdpi.com/2225-1146/2/1/1/pdf
Download Restriction: no

File URL: http://www.mdpi.com/2225-1146/2/1/1/
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Article provided by MDPI, Open Access Journal in its journal Econometrics.

Volume (Year): 2 (2014)
Issue (Month): 1 (February)
Pages: 1-19

as in new window
Handle: RePEc:gam:jecnmx:v:2:y:2014:i:1:p:1-19:d:32999

Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.mdpi.com/

Related research

Keywords: partially adaptive estimation; referee bias; close bias; grouped-data regression;

Find related papers by JEL classification:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Babatunde Buraimo & Rob Simmons & Marek Maciaszczyk, 2012. "Favoritism And Referee Bias In European Soccer: Evidence From The Spanish League And The Uefa Champions League," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 30(3), pages 329-343, 07.
  2. Scoppa, Vincenzo, 2008. "Are Subjective Evaluations Biased by Social Factors or Connections? An Econometric Analysis of Soccer Referee Decisions," MPRA Paper 15819, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Phillips, Robert F., 1991. "A constrained maximum-likelihood approach to estimating switching regressions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 48(1-2), pages 241-262.
  4. Matthias Sutter & Martin G. Kocher, . "Favoritism of agents – The case of referees’ home bias," Papers on Strategic Interaction, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Strategic Interaction Group 2002-28, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Strategic Interaction Group.
  5. Peter Dawson & Stephen Dobson, 2008. "The influence of social pressure and nationality on individual decisions: evidence from the behaviour of referees," Working Papers, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham Business School, Economics Division 2008/14, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham Business School, Economics Division.
  6. Pettersson-Lidbom, Per & Priks, Mikael, 2010. "Behavior under social pressure: Empty Italian stadiums and referee bias," Economics Letters, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 108(2), pages 212-214, August.
  7. McDonald, James B., 1996. "An application and comparison of some flexible parametric and semi-parametric qualitative response models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 145-152, November.
  8. Luis Garicano & Ignacio Palacios-Huerta & Canice Prendergast, 2005. "Favoritism Under Social Pressure," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(2), pages 208-216, May.
  9. Joseph Price & Marc Remer & Daniel F. Stone, 2012. "Subperfect Game: Profitable Biases of NBA Referees," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(1), pages 271-300, 03.
  10. Butler, Richard J, et al, 1990. "Robust and Partially Adaptive Estimation of Regression Models," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 321-27, May.
  11. Stewart, Mark B, 1983. "On Least Squares Estimation When the Dependent Variable Is Grouped," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(4), pages 737-53, October.
  12. Ximing Wu & Thanasis Stengos, 2005. "Partially adaptive estimation via the maximum entropy densities," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 8(3), pages 352-366, December.
  13. Bartolucci, F. & Scaccia, L., 2005. "The use of mixtures for dealing with non-normal regression errors," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 48(4), pages 821-834, April.
  14. Rickman, Neil & Witt, Robert, 2005. "Favouritism and Financial Incentives: A Natural Experiment," CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers 4968, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  15. Phillips, Robert F., 1994. "Partially adaptive estimation via a normal mixture," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 64(1-2), pages 123-144.
  16. Caudill, Steven B., 1992. "More on grouping coarseness in linear normal regression models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 407-417, June.
  17. McDonald, James B. & Xu, Yexiao J., 1996. "A comparison of semi-parametric and partially adaptive estimators of the censored regression model with possibly skewed and leptokurtic error distributions," Economics Letters, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 153-159, May.
  18. Thomas J. Dohmen, 2008. "The Influence Of Social Forces: Evidence From The Behavior Of Football Referees," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 46(3), pages 411-424, 07.
  19. Beard, T Randolph & Caudill, Steven B & Gropper, Daniel M, 1991. "Finite Mixture Estimation of Multiproduct Cost Functions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 73(4), pages 654-64, November.
  20. Babatunde Buraimo & David Forrest & Robert Simmons, 2010. "The 12th man?: refereeing bias in English and German soccer," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 173(2), pages 431-449.
  21. Thanasis Stengos & Ximing Wu, 2005. "Partially Adaptive Estimation via Maximum Entropy Densities," University of Cyprus Working Papers in Economics, University of Cyprus Department of Economics 6-2005, University of Cyprus Department of Economics.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jecnmx:v:2:y:2014:i:1:p:1-19:d:32999. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (XML Conversion Team).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.