Loss leader or low margin leader? Advertising and the degree of product differentiation
AbstractThis paper attempts to isolate the conditions that give rise to loss leader pricing. I show that for sufficiently low distance between firms, the advertised good is priced below cost irrespective of whether firms advertise the same or different products. Instead, if products are sufficiently differentiated, loss leader pricing may result only if firms advertise the low reservation value product, otherwise the advertised good is a low margin leader. Thus, whether the advertised good is a loss leader or a low margin leader is primarily a function of the extent of differentiation between competing firms.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 9694.
Date of creation: 2008
Date of revision:
Informative advertising; loss leader; low margin leader; product differentiation;
Other versions of this item:
- Witness Simbanegavi, 2008. "Loss leader or low margin leader? Advertising and the degree of product differentiation," Working Papers 105, Economic Research Southern Africa.
- M3 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting - - Marketing and Advertising
- L1 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2008-07-30 (All new papers)
- NEP-COM-2008-07-30 (Industrial Competition)
- NEP-MIC-2008-07-30 (Microeconomics)
- NEP-MKT-2008-07-30 (Marketing)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bagwell, Kyle & Ramey, Garey, 1994. "Coordination Economies, Advertising, and Search Behavior in Retail Markets," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(3), pages 498-517, June.
- Benham, Lee, 1972. "The Effect of Advertising on the Price of Eyeglasses," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(2), pages 337-52, October.
- Joel Waldfogel & Jeffrey Milyo, 1999.
"The Effect of Price Advertising on Prices: Evidence in the Wake of 44 Liquormart,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 89(5), pages 1081-1096, December.
- Jeffrey Milyo & Joel Waldfogel, 1998. "The Effect of Price Advertising on Prices: Evidence in the Wake of 44 Liquormart," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 9807, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
- Jeffrey Milyo & Joel Waldfogel, 1998. "The Effect of Price Advertising and Prices: Evidence in the Wake of 44 Liquormart," NBER Working Papers 6488, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kyle Bagwell & Garey Ramey, 1990.
"Advertising and Coordination,"
903, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- Grossman, Gene M & Shapiro, Carl, 1984. "Informative Advertising with Differentiated Products," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(1), pages 63-81, January.
- Glenn Ellison, 2003.
"A Model of Add-on Pricing,"
NBER Working Papers
9721, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- DeGraba, Patrick, 2006. "The loss leader is a turkey: Targeted discounts from multi-product competitors," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 613-628, May.
- David A. Soberman, 2004. "Research Note: Additional Learning and Implications on the Role of Informative Advertising," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 50(12), pages 1744-1750, December.
- Witness Simbanegavi, 2005. "Equilibrium Pricing When Only Some Goods Are Advertised," Working Papers 35, Economic Research Southern Africa.
- James D. Hess & Eitan Gerstner, 1987. "Loss Leader Pricing and Rain Check Policy," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 6(4), pages 358-374.
- Butters, Gerard R, 1977. "Equilibrium Distributions of Sales and Advertising Prices," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(3), pages 465-91, October.
- Lal, Rajiv & Matutes, Carmen, 1994. "Retail Pricing and Advertising Strategies," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 67(3), pages 345-70, July.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.