Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

The influence of financial leverage of firms on their international trading activities

Contents:

Author Info

  • Nakhoda, Aadil

Abstract

Using the BEEPS dataset from Enterprise Surveys, I study the effect of financial leverage (percentage of assets funded by bank loans) of firms on their decision to participate in various trading activities, such as exporting, importing and two way trading (firms that export and import). I determine that the intensity of financial leverage does not inhibit firms which export only from becoming two way traders, but it does inhibit firms which import only or operate only within the national market to become two way traders. The effect is determined to be stronger for firms that operate only within the national market than firms that import only. Since unobserved factors may influence both trading activities and financial leverage, I instrument for financial leverage using a variable that combines overdue payments to suppliers and the relationship of firms with their lenders. I contribute to the literature as I augment a model that determines the effect of financial leverage on various trading activities by implementing differences between industries due to their level of external dependence and asset tangibility. Hence, the effect of financial leverage is determined to vary between different trading activities within industries that exhibit different levels of external dependence and asset tangibility.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/35765/
File Function: original version
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 35765.

as in new window
Length:
Date of creation: May 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:35765

Contact details of provider:
Postal: Schackstr. 4, D-80539 Munich, Germany
Phone: +49-(0)89-2180-2219
Fax: +49-(0)89-2180-3900
Web page: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords: Financial Leverage; International Trade; Financial Constraints; Two Way Trader; European Union; Firm-level Evidence;

Find related papers by JEL classification:

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Maurice Kugler & Eric Verhoogen, 2009. "Plants and Imported Inputs: New Facts and an Interpretation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(2), pages 501-07, May.
  2. Amiti, Mary & Weinstein, David E., 2009. "Exports and Financial Shocks," CEPR Discussion Papers 7590, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Matías Braun & Borja Larrain, 2005. "Finance and the Business Cycle: International, Inter-Industry Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, American Finance Association, vol. 60(3), pages 1097-1128, 06.
  4. Minetti, Raoul & Zhu, Susan Chun, 2011. "Credit constraints and firm export: Microeconomic evidence from Italy," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 109-125, March.
  5. Gorodnichenko, Yuriy & Schnitzer, Monika, 2010. "Financial constraints and innovation: Why poor countries don't catchup," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 341, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
  6. Paula Bustos, 2009. "Trade Liberalization, Exports and Technology Upgrading: Evidence on the Impact of MERCOSUR on Argentinean Firms," 2009 Meeting Papers, Society for Economic Dynamics 1029, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  7. Maurice Kugler & Eric A. Verhoogen, 2007. "Product Quality at the Plant Level: Plant Size, Exports, Output Prices and Input Prices in Colombia," Discussion Papers, Columbia University, Department of Economics 0708-12, Columbia University, Department of Economics.
  8. Martins, Pedro S. & Opromolla, Luca David, 2011. "Why Ex(Im)porters Pay More: Evidence from Matched Firm-Worker Panels," IZA Discussion Papers 6013, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Yuriy Gorodnichenko & Jan Svejnar & Katherine Terrell, 2010. "Globalization and Innovation in Emerging Markets," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 2(2), pages 194-226, April.
  10. Mirabelle Muûls & Mauro Pisu, . "Imports and exports at the level of the firm: Evidence from Belgium," Discussion Papers 07/28, University of Nottingham, GEP.
  11. Maria Bas & Antoine Berthou, 2011. "The Decision to Import Capital Goods in India: Firms' Financial Factors Matter," Working Papers 2011-06, CEPII research center.
  12. Flora Bellone & Patrick Musso & Lionel Nesta & Stefano Schiavo, 2008. "Financial Constraints and Firm Export Behavior," Department of Economics Working Papers 0816, Department of Economics, University of Trento, Italia.
  13. Chor, Davin & Manova, Kalina, 2012. "Off the cliff and back? Credit conditions and international trade during the global financial crisis," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 117-133.
  14. Hoekman, Bernard M. & Maskus, Keith E. & Saggi, Kamal, 2005. "Transfer of technology to developing countries: Unilateral and multilateral policy options," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1587-1602, October.
  15. Beck, T.H.L. & Demirgüc-Kunt, A. & Laeven, L. & Maksimovic, V., 2006. "The determinants of financing obstacles," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-4295079, Tilburg University.
  16. Baggs, Jennifer & Brander, James A., 2005. "Trade Liberalization, Profitability, and Financial Leverage," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2005256e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  17. Robert C. Feenstra & Zhiyuan Li & Miaojie Yu, 2011. "Exports and Credit Constraints Under Incomplete Information: Theory and Evidence from China," NBER Working Papers 16940, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Haddad, Mona & Harrison, Ann & Hausman, Catherine, 2011. "Decomposing the great trade collapse : products, prices, and quantities in the 2008-2009 crisis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5749, The World Bank.
  19. Hyndman, Kyle & Serio, Giovanni, 2010. "Competition and inter-firm credit: Theory and evidence from firm-level data in Indonesia," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(1), pages 88-108, September.
  20. Thomas Chaney, 2013. "Liquidity Constrained Exporters," NBER Working Papers 19170, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Alexander Vogel & Joachim Wagner, 2010. "Higher productivity in importing German manufacturing firms: self-selection, learning from importing, or both?," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 145(4), pages 641-665, January.
  22. Armando Silva & Óscar Afonso & Ana Paula Africano, 2010. "Economic performance and international trade engagement: the case of Portuguese manufacturing firms," FEP Working Papers 369, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
  23. Martin Brown & Steven Ongena & Alexander Popov & Pinar Yesin, 2010. "Who Needs Credit and Who Gets Credit in Eastern Europe?," Working Papers 2010-09, Swiss National Bank.
  24. Riccardo De Bonis & Giovanni Ferri & Zeno Rotondi, 2010. "Do bank-firm relationships influence firm internationalization?," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences 37, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
  25. Kasahara, Hiroyuki & Lapham, Beverly, 2013. "Productivity and the decision to import and export: Theory and evidence," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(2), pages 297-316.
  26. JaeBin Ahn & Amit K. Khandelwal & Shang-Jin Wei, 2010. "The Role of Intermediaries in Facilitating Trade," NBER Working Papers 15706, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  27. Temouri, Yama & Vogel, Alexander & Wagner, Joachim, 2010. "Self-Selection into Export Markets by Business Services Firms: Evidence from France, Germany and the United Kingdom," IZA Discussion Papers 5147, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  28. Blalock, Garrick & Veloso, Francisco M., 2007. "Imports, Productivity Growth, and Supply Chain Learning," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 1134-1151, July.
  29. Fergal McCann, 2009. "Importing, Exporting and Productivity in Irish Manufacturing," Working Papers, School Of Economics, University College Dublin 200922, School Of Economics, University College Dublin.
  30. Kon, Y & Storey, D J, 2003. " A Theory of Discouraged Borrowers," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 37-49, August.
  31. Manova, Kalina, 2008. "Credit constraints, equity market liberalizations and international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 33-47, September.
  32. Armando Silva, 2011. "Financial constraints and exports: evidence from Portuguese manufacturing firms," FEP Working Papers 402, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
  33. Ralph Haas & Marga Peeters, 2006. "The dynamic adjustment towards target capital structures of firms in transition economies ," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 14(1), pages 133-169, 03.
  34. Joel Stiebale, 2008. "Do Financial Constraints Matter for Foreign Market Entry? – A Firm-Level Examination," Ruhr Economic Papers, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen 0051, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
  35. Klingebiel, Daniela & Kroszner, Randall S & Laeven, Luc, 2006. "Banking Crises, Financial Dependence and Growth," CEPR Discussion Papers 5623, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  36. Holmstrom, Bengt, 1989. "Agency costs and innovation," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 305-327, December.
  37. Andrei A. Levchenko & Logan Lewis & Linda L. Tesar, 2009. "The Collapse of International Trade During the 2008-2009 Crisis: In Search of the Smoking Gun," Working Papers 592, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
  38. Flora Bellone & Patrick Musso & Lionel Nesta & Michel Quere, 2008. "The U-Shaped Productivity Dynamics of French Exporters," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 144(4), pages 636-659, December.
  39. Bernanke, Ben & Gertler, Mark, 1989. "Agency Costs, Net Worth, and Business Fluctuations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 14-31, March.
  40. Wolfgang Keller, 2004. "International Technology Diffusion," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(3), pages 752-782, September.
  41. Sean Cleary, 1999. "The Relationship between Firm Investment and Financial Status," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 673-692, 04.
  42. Jyrki Niskanen & Mervi Niskanen, 2006. "The Determinants of Corporate Trade Credit Policies in a Bank-dominated Financial Environment: the Case of Finnish Small Firms," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 12(1), pages 81-102.
  43. Kalina Manova & Shang-Jin Wei & Zhiwei Zhang, 2011. "Firm Exports and Multinational Activity Under Credit Constraints," NBER Working Papers 16905, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  44. Wagner, Joachim, 2002. "Unobserved firm heterogeneity and the size-exports nexus : evidence from German panel data," HWWA Discussion Papers 194, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
  45. Rajendra R. Vaidya, 2011. "The Determinants of trade credit: Evidence from Indian manufacturing firms," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2011-012, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
  46. Tibor Besedeš & Byung–Cheol Kim & Volodymyr Lugovskyy, 2011. "Export Growth and Credit Constraints," CeFiG Working Papers, Center for Firms in the Global Economy 16, Center for Firms in the Global Economy, revised 16 Oct 2011.
  47. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli, 2006. "Small and medium-size enterprises: Access to finance as a growth constraint," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(11), pages 2931-2943, November.
  48. Peter MacKay & Gordon M. Phillips, 2005. "How Does Industry Affect Firm Financial Structure?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 18(4), pages 1433-1466.
  49. Amiti, Mary & Konings, Jozef, 2005. "Trade Liberalization, Intermediate Inputs and Productivity: Evidence from Indonesia," CEPR Discussion Papers 5104, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  50. Myers, Stewart C, 1984. " The Capital Structure Puzzle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 575-92, July.
  51. Carlo Altomonte & Gabor Bekes, 2009. "Trade Complexity and Productivity," IEHAS Discussion Papers 0914, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
  52. Hur, Jung & Raj, Manoj & Riyanto, Yohanes E., 2006. "Finance and trade: A cross-country empirical analysis on the impact of financial development and asset tangibility on international trade," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(10), pages 1728-1741, October.
  53. Kaplan, Steven N & Zingales, Luigi, 1997. "Do Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivities Provide Useful Measures of Financing Constraints," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 112(1), pages 169-215, February.
  54. Myers, Stewart C., 1984. "Capital structure puzzle," Working papers 1548-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
  55. Greenaway, David & Kneller, Richard, 2008. "Exporting, productivity and agglomeration," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 52(5), pages 919-939, July.
  56. Rajan, Raghuram G & Zingales, Luigi, 1998. "Financial Dependence and Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 559-86, June.
  57. Davide Castellani & Francesco Serti & Chiara Tomasi, 2008. "Firms in International Trade: Importers and Exporters Heterogeneity in the Italian Manufacturing Industry," LEM Papers Series 2008/04, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
  58. Atif Mian & Asim Ijaz Khwaja, 2006. "Tracing the Impact of Bank Liquidity Shocks: Evidence from an Emerging Market," NBER Working Papers 12612, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  59. Stewart C. Myers, 1984. "Capital Structure Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 1393, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  60. Mary Amiti & Amit K. Khandelwal, 2009. "Import Competition and Quality Upgrading," NBER Working Papers 15503, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  61. Jože P. Damijan & Črt Kostevc, 2011. "Firms' Pattern of Trade and Access to Finance," LICOS Discussion Papers, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven 27811, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
  62. Thomas Chaney, 2008. "Distorted Gravity: The Intensive and Extensive Margins of International Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(4), pages 1707-21, September.
  63. Greenaway, David & Guariglia, Alessandra & Kneller, Richard, 2007. "Financial factors and exporting decisions," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 377-395, November.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Wagner, Joachim, 2013. "Credit constraints and exports: A survey of empirical studies using firm level data," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 334, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
  2. Nakhoda, Aadil, 2013. "Bank competition and export diversification," MPRA Paper 50774, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Joachim Wagner, 2014. "Credit constraints and exports: evidence for German manufacturing enterprises," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(3), pages 294-302, January.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:35765. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.