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Self-Selection into Export Markets by Business Services Firms: Evidence from France, Germany and the United Kingdom

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  • Wagner, Joachim
  • Temouri, Yama
  • Vogel, Alexander

Abstract

This study reports results from an empirical investigation of business services sector firms that (start to) export, comparing exporters to firms that serve the national market only. We estimate identically specified empirical models using comparable enterprise level data from France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Exporters are more productive and pay higher wages on average in all three countries. Results for profitability differ across borders – profitability of exporters is significantly smaller in Germany, significantly larger in France, and does not differ significantly in the UK. The results for wages and productivity hold in the years before the export start, which indicates self-selection into exporting of more productive services firms that pay higher wages. The surprising finding of self-selection of less profitable German business services firms into exporting does not show up among firms from France and the UK where no statistically significant relationship between profitability and starting to export is found. --

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association in its series Annual Conference 2011 (Frankfurt, Main): The Order of the World Economy - Lessons from the Crisis with number 48700.

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Date of creation: 2011
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:vfsc11:48700

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Web page: http://www.socialpolitik.org/
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Keywords: business services firms; exports; self-selection; France; Germany; UK;

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References

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  1. Joachim Wagner, 2008. "Export Entry, Export Exit and Productivity in German Manufacturing Industries," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(2), pages 169-180.
  2. Joachim Wagner, 2005. "Exports and Productivity: A Survey of the Evidence fro Firm Level Data," International Trade 0504005, EconWPA.
  3. Sylvia Zühlke & Markus Zwick & Sebastian Scharnhorst & Thomas Wende, 2004. "European Data Watch: The research data centres of the Federal Statistical Office and the statistical offices of the Länder," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 124(4), pages 567-578.
  4. Schmalensee, Richard., 1987. "Inter-industry studies of structure and performance," Working papers 1874-87., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
  5. The International Study Group on Exports and Productivity, 2007. "Exports and productivity - comparable evidence for 14 countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4418, The World Bank.
  6. Henk Kox, 2010. "Exports and productivity selection effects for Dutch firms," CPB Discussion Paper 143, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
  7. Alberto Abadie & Guido W. Imbens, 2006. "On the Failure of the Bootstrap for Matching Estimators," NBER Technical Working Papers 0325, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Alexander Vogel, 2009. "The German Business Services Statistics Panel 2003 to 2007," Working Paper Series in Economics 127, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
  9. Bernard, Andrew B. & Bradford Jensen, J., 1999. "Exceptional exporter performance: cause, effect, or both?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 1-25, February.
  10. Yeaple, Stephen & Helpman, Elhanan & Melitz, Marc, 2004. "Export versus FDI with Heterogeneous Firms," Scholarly Articles 3229098, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  11. John W. Budd & Jozef Konings & Matthew J. Slaughter, 2002. "Wages and International Rent Sharing in Multinational Firms," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 522, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  12. Alexander Vogel, 2009. "Exporter performance in the German business services sector," The Service Industries Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(7), pages 1015-1031, May.
  13. Alexander Vogel & Joachim Wagner, 2010. "Exports and Profitability - First Evidence for German Business Services Enterprises," Applied Economics Quarterly (formerly: Konjunkturpolitik), Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 56(1), pages 7-30.
  14. Daniel S. Hamermesh, 2007. "Viewpoint: Replication in economics," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 40(3), pages 715-733, August.
  15. Heckman, James J. & Lalonde, Robert J. & Smith, Jeffrey A., 1999. "The economics and econometrics of active labor market programs," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 31, pages 1865-2097 Elsevier.
  16. Mirabelle Muûls & Mauro Pisu, . "Imports and exports at the level of the firm: Evidence from Belgium," Discussion Papers 07/28, University of Nottingham, GEP.
  17. Helmut Fryges & Joachim Wagner, 2008. "Exports and Profitability - First Evidence for German Manufacturing Firms," Working Paper Series in Economics 102, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
  18. Jozef Konings & Alan Patrick Murphy, 2006. "Do Multinational Enterprises Relocate Employment to Low-Wage Regions? Evidence from European Multinationals," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 142(2), pages 267-286, July.
  19. Wagner, Joachim, 2001. "The causal effects of exports on firm size and labor productivity: First evidence from a matching approach," HWWA Discussion Papers 155, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
  20. Daniel S. Hamermesh, 2000. "The Craft of labormetrics," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 53(3), pages 363-380, April.
  21. Thorsten Schank & Claus Schnabel & Joachim Wagner, 2010. "Higher wages in exporting firms: self-selection, export effect, or both? First evidence from linked employer-employee data," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 146(2), pages 303-322, June.
  22. International Study Group on Exports and Productivity (ISGEP), 2008. "Understanding Cross-Country Differences in Exporter Premia: Comparable Evidence for 14 Countries," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 144(4), pages 596-635, December.
  23. Breinlich, Holger & Criscuolo, Chiara, 2011. "International trade in services: A portrait of importers and exporters," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(2), pages 188-206, July.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Biewen, Elena & Harsch, Daniela & Spies, Julia, 2012. "The determinants of service imports: The role of cost pressure and financial constraints," Discussion Papers 31/2012, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  2. Wagner, Joachim, 2010. "From Estimation Results to Stylized Facts: Twelve Recommendations for Empirical Research in International Activities of Heterogeneous Firms," IZA Discussion Papers 5175, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Joachim Wagner, 2011. "Exports, imports and profitability: First evidence for manufacturing enterprises," Working Paper Series in Economics 206, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
  4. Stefano Federico & Enrico Tosti, 2012. "Exporters and importers of services: firm-level evidence on Italy," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 877, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  5. Markus Kelle & Jörn Kleinert & Horst Raff & Farid Toubal, 2013. "Cross-border and Foreign Affiliate Sales of Services: Evidence from German Microdata," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(11), pages 1373-1392, November.
  6. Joachim Wagner, 2012. "International trade and firm performance: a survey of empirical studies since 2006," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 148(2), pages 235-267, June.
  7. Yvonne Wolfmayr & Elisabeth Christen & Michael Pfaffermayr, 2013. "Pattern, Determinants and Dynamics of Austrian Service Exports – A Firmlevel Analysis," FIW Research Reports series IV-005, FIW.
  8. Damijan, Jože & Haller, Stefanie A. & Kaitila, Ville & Maliranta, Mika & Milet, Emmanuel & Rojec, Matija & Mirza, Daniel, 2012. "The performance of trading firms in the services sectors – Comparable evidence from four EU countries," Discussion Papers 1284, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  9. Nakhoda, Aadil, 2012. "The influence of financial leverage of firms on their international trading activities," MPRA Paper 35765, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Alexander Vogel & Joachim Wagner, 2011. "Robust estimates of exporter productivity premia in German business services enterprises," Working Paper Series in Economics 207, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.

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