Tarımsal Korumacılık, Korumacılığın Ölçümü ve Türkiye
[Agricultural Protectionism, Its Measurement and Turkey]
AbstractThis study reviews conceptual framework of agricultural protectionism, relevant measurement issues, and changes in agricultural protectionism with time in selected countries based on the composition of supports. When measuring the levels of agricultural protection, OECD method, the most widespread one, was employed, and related criticisms were discussed. In order to determine levels of protection, 11 countries, which are thought to have a significant role in the world agricultural markets and/or in terms of protectionism, were selected. These countries were grouped as low, medium and high protection countries, based on their Nominal Assistance Coefficients. Further, differing applications and specific conditions of those countries were discussed. Producer Support Estimate Percentages, Nominal Assistance Coefficient and Nominal Protection Coefficient were used to analyze changes in the protection level of the countries. Nominal Assistance Coefficients are found to be as follows: 1,04-1,11 in low protection countries (Australia, Brazil, China), 1,16-1,43 in medium protection countries (United States of America, European Union, Canada, Russia, Turkey) and 2,12-2,76 in high protection countries (South Korea, Switzerland, Japan). Although share of decoupled payments in support compositions increases, share of market price supports causing price distortions is still high. Furthermore, it was also observed that importance of environmental issues is increasing in almost all countries. Based on nominal protection coefficient, it can be said that countries are protecting staple crops more. In this case, concerns of the countries on being self sufficient at least for these crops and decreasing their dependency on world markets are affecting the decisions of those countries. Hence, it can be concluded that agriculture will remain as the most controversial issue in free trade negotiations.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 35083.
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
: Agricultural Protectionism; Nominal Assistance Coefficient; Nominal Protection Coefficient; Producer Support Estimate; Turkey;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- H20 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - General
- Q18 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Spoerer, Mark, 2010. ""Fortress Europe" in long-term perspective: agricultural protection in the European Community, 1957-2003," MPRA Paper 24120, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Kym Anderson & Johan Swinnen, 2008.
"Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Europe's Transition Economies,"
World Bank Publications,
The World Bank, number 6502.
- Anderson, Kym & Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2007. "Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Europe’s Transition Economies," Agricultural Distortions Working Paper 48556, World Bank.
- Diao, Xinshen & Dyck, John H. & Skully, David W. & Somwaru, Agapi & Lee, Chinkook, 2002. "Structural Change and Agricultural Protection: Costs of Korean Agricultural Policy, 1975 and 1990," Agricultural Economics Reports 33921, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
- Anderson, Kym & Kurzweil, Marianne & Martin, Will & Sandri, Damiano & Valenzuela, Ernesto, 2008.
"Measuring distortions to agricultural incentives, revisited,"
World Trade Review,
Cambridge University Press, vol. 7(04), pages 675-704, October.
- Anderson, Kym & Kurzweil, Marianne & Martin, Will & Sandri, Damiano & Valenzuela, Ernesto, 2008. "Measuring Distortions to Agricultural Incentives, Revisited," CEPR Discussion Papers 6924, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Anderson, Kym & Kurzweil, Marianne & Martin, Will & Sandri, Damiano & Valenzuela, Ernesto, 2008. "Measuring distortions to agricultural incentives, revisited," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4612, The World Bank.
- Corden, W. M., 1971. "The substitution problem in the theory of effective protection," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 37-57, February.
- Kym Anderson & Peter Lloyd & Donald MacLaren, 2007.
"Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Australia Since World War II,"
Centre for International Economic Studies Working Papers
2007-01, University of Adelaide, Centre for International Economic Studies.
- Kym Anderson & Peter Lloyd & Donald Maclaren, 2007. "Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Australia Since World War II," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 83(263), pages 461-482, December.
- Anderson, Kym & Lloyd, Peter J & Maclaren, Donald, 2007. "Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Australia Since World War II," CEPR Discussion Papers 6436, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Anderson, Kym & Lloyd, Peter & MacLaren, Donald, 2008. "Distortions to agricultural incentives in Australia since world war II," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4471, The World Bank.
- Kym Anderson, 2009. "Distortions to Agricultural Incentives : A Global Perspective, 1955-2007," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 9436.
- Kym Anderson, 2010. "Global Distortions to Agricultural Markets: New Indicators of Trade and Welfare Impacts, 1960 to 2007," Centre for International Economic Studies Working Papers 2010-03, University of Adelaide, Centre for International Economic Studies.
- Swinnen, Johan F. M. & Banerjee, Anurag N. & Gorter, Harry de, 2001. "Economic development, institutional change, and the political economy of agricultural protection: An econometric study of Belgium since the 19th century," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 26(1), pages 25-43, October.
- Jikun Huang & Xiaobing Wang & Huayong Zhi & Zhurong Huang & Scott Rozelle, 2011. "Subsidies and distortions in China’s agriculture: evidence from producer‐level data," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 55(1), pages 53-71, 01.
- Beghin, John C & Kherallah, Mylene, 1994.
"Political Institutions and International Patterns of Agricultural Protection,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 76(3), pages 482-89, August.
- Beghin, John C. & Kherallah, Mylene, 1994. "Political Institutions and International Patterns of Agricultural Protection," Staff General Research Papers 1602, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Guo, Xiang-Yu & Yu, Zhi-Gang & Schmit, Todd M. & Henehan, Brian M. & Li, Dan, 2009. "An Empirical Evaluation of New Socialist Countryside Development in China," Working Papers 49002, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
- Mario Jales & Marcos Sawaya Jank & Shunli Yao & Colin Carter, 2006.
"Agriculture in Brazil and China : challenges and opportunities,"
INTAL Working Papers
1296, Inter-American Development Bank, INTAL.
- Marcos Sawaya Jank & Shunli Yao & Colin A. Carter & Mario Queiroz de Monteiro Jales, 2006. "Agriculture in Brazil and China: Challenges and Opportunities," IDB Publications 8301, Inter-American Development Bank.
- Cheng, Fuzhi & Orden, David, 2005. "Exchange Rate Misalignment and Its Effects on Agricultural Producer Support Estimates: Empirical Evidence from India and China," 2005 Annual meeting, July 24-27, Providence, RI 19121, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
- R. Lopez & I. Hathie, 2000. "The Structure of Government Intervention in African Agriculture," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(1), pages 57-72.
- Olper, Alessandro, 2007. "Land inequality, government ideology and agricultural protection," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 67-83, February.
- Anderson, Kym & Valdes, Alberto, 2007.
"Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Latin America,"
Agricultural Distortions Working Paper
48558, World Bank.
- Kym Anderson & Alberto Valdés, 2008. "Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Latin America," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6604.
- Dimitri, Carolyn & Effland, Anne & Conklin, Neilson C., 2005. "The 20th Century Transformation of U.S. Agriculture and Farm Policy," Economic Information Bulletin 59390, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
- Barber, William J., 1967. "A History of Economic Thought," History of Economic Thought Books, McMaster University Archive for the History of Economic Thought, number barber1967.
- De Gorter, Harry & Swinnen, Johan, 2002. "Political economy of agricultural policy," Handbook of Agricultural Economics, in: B. L. Gardner & G. C. Rausser (ed.), Handbook of Agricultural Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 36, pages 1893-1943 Elsevier.
- Liefert, William M. & Liefert, Olga, 2007. "Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Russia," Agricultural Distortions Working Paper 48386, World Bank.
- Alessandro Olper, 2001. "Determinants of Agricultural Protection: The Role of Democracy and Institutional Setting Alessandro Olper," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(2), pages 75-92.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.