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The Importance of Being Early

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Author Info

  • Pavithra Parthasarathi

    ()

  • Anupam Srivastava

    ()

  • Nikolas Geroliminis

    ()

  • David Levinson

    ()
    (Nexus (Networks, Economics, and Urban Systems) Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota)

Abstract

The assumption that the penalty for being early is less than that for being late was put forward by Vickrey (1963) who analyzed how commuters compare penalties in the form of schedule delay (due to peak hour congestion), against penalties in the form of reaching their destination (ahead or behind their desired time of arrival). This assumption has been tested by many researchers since then for various applications, especially in modeling congestion pricing (Arnott et al., 1990) where it is critical to understand the tradeoff between schedule delay and travel delay. Key findings are summarized in the second section of this paper. This research aims to test this hypothesis of earliness being less expensive than lateness using empirical data at different levels and across different regions. New methods to estimate the ratio of earliness to lateness for different types of datasets are developed, which could be used by agencies to implement control policies like congestion pricing or other schemes more accurately. Travel survey data from metropolitan areas provide individual travel patterns while loop detector data provide link level traffic flow data.

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File URL: http://nexus.umn.edu/Papers/ImportanceOfBeingEarly.pdf
File Function: First version, 2009
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group in its series Working Papers with number 201103.

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Date of creation: 2009
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Publication status: Published in Transportation 38(2) pp. 227-247.
Handle: RePEc:nex:wpaper:importanceofbeingearly

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Postal: Dept. of Civil Engineering, 500 Pillsbury Drive SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455
Phone: +01 (612) 625-6354
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Web page: http://nexus.umn.edu
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Keywords: Schedule Delay; Travel Time; Traffic; Travel Behavior.;

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References

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  1. Small, Kenneth A, 1982. "The Scheduling of Consumer Activities: Work Trips," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(3), pages 467-79, June.
  2. David Levinson & Kathleen Harder & John Bloomfield & Kathy Carlson, 2006. "Waiting Tolerance: Ramp Delay vs. Freeway Congestion," Working Papers 200602, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
  3. Daganzo, Carlos F., 2007. "Urban gridlock: Macroscopic modeling and mitigation approaches," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 49-62, January.
  4. Nikolas Geroliminis & David Levinson, 2008. "Cordon pricing consistent with the physics of overcrowding," Working Papers 000038, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
  5. Noland, Robert B. & Small, Kenneth A. & Koskenoja, Pia Maria & Chu, Xuehao, 1997. "Simulating Travel Reliability," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt30w220k0, University of California Transportation Center.
  6. Xinkai Wu & David Levinson & Henry Liu, 2008. "Perception of Waiting Time at Signalized Intersections," Working Papers 200909, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
  7. Vickrey, William S, 1969. "Congestion Theory and Transport Investment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(2), pages 251-60, May.
  8. David Levinson & Ewa Zofka, 2006. "The Metropolitan Travel Survey Archive: A Case Study in Archiving," Working Papers 200610, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
  9. Munoz, Juan Carlos & Daganzo, Carlos F., 2000. "Fingerprinting traffic from static freeway sensors," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt58x856jd, University of California Transportation Center.
  10. Arnott, R. & de Palma, A. & Lindsey, R., 1990. "Departure time and route choice for the morning commute," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 209-228, June.
  11. Geroliminis, Nikolas & Daganzo, Carlos F., 2008. "Existence of urban-scale macroscopic fundamental diagrams: Some experimental findings," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 42(9), pages 759-770, November.
  12. Jou, Rong-Chang & Kitamura, Ryuichi & Weng, Mei-Chuan & Chen, Chih-Cheng, 2008. "Dynamic commuter departure time choice under uncertainty," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 42(5), pages 774-783, June.
  13. Hollander, Yaron, 2006. "Direct versus indirect models for the effects of unreliability," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 40(9), pages 699-711, November.
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Cited by:
  1. Shanjiang Zhu & David Levinson & Henry Liu, 2009. "Measuring Winners and Losers from the new I-35W Mississippi River Bridge," Working Papers 000066, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.

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