Commercial Policy with Altruistic Voters
AbstractThis paper considers a specific factor model with two sectors in which agents are altruistic towards domestic residents. I show that, even if the degree of altruism is small, direct democracy leads to commercial policies that are biased against trade as long as the mobile factor is unbiased in the sense of Jones and Ruffin (1977) and the income of the owners of the factor which is specific to the import competing sector is lower than the income of the owners of the other specific factor. Tariffs may be preferred to subsidies by the median voter if subsidies require that beneficiaries spend a fixed cost to demonstrate that they are entitled to these subsidies and there is heterogeneity in the size of producers. Lastly, I construct a model of indirect democracy where legislators can receive campaign contributions from potential lobbyists. Even if campaign contributions are positive in equilibrium, the tariffs that emerge from votes taken after lobbying can represent the wishes of the median voter. In this model, campaign contributions do not buy votes. Instead, consistent with what is claimed in the qualitative literature, they buy access to legislators' time. The model is also consistent with the evidence showing that campaign contributions and lobbying activity are directed mainly at legislators who already agree with their contributors and their lobbyists.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 7984.
Date of creation: Oct 2000
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Other versions of this item:
- F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
- D64 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Altruism; Philanthropy
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Stark, Oded, 1993. "Nonmarket transfers and altruism," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(7), pages 1413-1424, October.
- Mayer, Wolfgang, 1974. "Short-Run and Long-Run Equilibrium for a Small Open Economy," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(5), pages 955-67, Sept./Oct.
- Robert E. Baldwin & Christopher S. Magee, 1998.
"Is Trade Policy for Sale? Congressional Voting on Recent Trade Bills,"
NBER Working Papers
6376, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Baldwin, Robert E & Magee, Christopher S, 2000. " Is Trade Policy for Sale? Congressional Voting on Recent Trade Bills," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 105(1-2), pages 79-101, October.
- Snyder, James M, Jr, 1992. "Long-Term Investing in Politicians; or, Give Early, Give Often," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 35(1), pages 15-43, April.
- Levy, Philip I., 1999. "Lobbying and international cooperation in tariff setting," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 345-370, April.
- Grossman, G.M. & Helpman, E., 1992.
"Protection for Sale,"
162, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Public and International Affairs.
- Grossman, G.M. & Helpman, E., 1992. "Protection for Sale," Papers 21-92, Tel Aviv.
- Grossman, Gene & Helpman, Elhanan, 1993. "Protection for Sale," CEPR Discussion Papers 827, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman, 1992. "Protection For Sale," NBER Working Papers 4149, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hansson, Ingemar & Stuart, Charles, 1989. "Social Security as Trade among Living Generations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(5), pages 1182-95, December.
- Giovanni Maggi & Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg, 1999.
"Protection for Sale: An Empirical Investigation,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 89(5), pages 1135-1155, December.
- Ruffin, Roy & Jones, Ronald, 1977. "Protection and real wages: The neoclassical ambiguity," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 337-348, April.
- Mayer, Wolfgang & Riezman, Raymond G., 1987. "Endogenous choice of trade policy instruments," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(3-4), pages 377-381, November.
- Hochman, Harold M & Rodgers, James D, 1969. "Pareto Optimal Redistribution," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(4), pages 542-57, Part I Se.
- Stratmann, Thomas, 1992. "Are Contributions Rational? Untangling Strategies of Political Action Committees," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(3), pages 647-64, June.
- Coate, Stephen, 1995. "Altruism, the Samaritan's Dilemma, and Government Transfer Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(1), pages 46-57, March.
- Glazer, Amihai & Ranjan, Priya, 2007. "Trade protection to reduce redistribution," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 790-805, September.
- Di Tella, Rafael & Dubra, Juan, 2008.
"Anger and Regulation,"
14442, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 29 Mar 2009.
- Richard E. Baldwin & Frédéric Robert-Nicoud, 2007.
"Entry and Asymmetric Lobbying: Why Governments Pick Losers,"
Journal of the European Economic Association,
MIT Press, vol. 5(5), pages 1064-1093, 09.
- Richard E. Baldwin & Frédéric Robert-Nicoud, 2007. "Entry and Asymmetric Lobbying: Why Governments Pick Losers," CEP Discussion Papers dp0791, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Richard E. Baldwin & Frederic Robert-Nicoud, 2002. "Entry and Asymmetric Lobbying: Why Governments Pick Losers," NBER Working Papers 8756, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Guriev, Sergei & Yakovlev, Evgeny & Zhuravskaya, Ekaterina, 2010.
"Interest group politics in a federation,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 94(9-10), pages 730-748, October.
- Rafael Di Tella & Juan Dubra & Robert MacCulloch, 2008. "A Resource Belief-Curse? Oil and Individualism," NBER Working Papers 14556, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ernesto Dal Bó & Pedro Dal Bó & Rafael Di Tella, 2002. "'Plata o Plomo': Bribe and Punishment in a Theory of Political Influence," Working Papers 2002-28, Brown University, Department of Economics.
- De Figueiredo, John M. & Silverman, Brian S., 2002.
"Academic Earmarks and the Returns to Lobbying,"
4245-02, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Christopher M. Meissner & Jose Ernesto Lopez Cordova, 2005. "Globalization and Democracy, 1870-2000," 2005 Meeting Papers 112, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Ana I. Balsa & Michael T. French & Tracy L. Regan, 2013. "Relative Deprivation and Risky Behaviors," Documentos de Trabajo/Working Papers 1304, Facultad de Ciencias Empresariales y Economia. Universidad de Montevideo..
- Limao, Nuno & Panagariya, Arvind, 2007. "Inequality and endogenous trade policy outcomes," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 292-309, July.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.