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The Narrowing Gap in New York City Teacher Qualifications and its Implications for Student Achievement in High-Poverty Schools

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  • Donald Boyd
  • Hamilton Lankford
  • Susanna Loeb
  • Jonah Rockoff
  • James Wyckoff

Abstract

The gap between the qualifications of New York City teachers in high-poverty schools and low-poverty schools has narrowed substantially since 2000. Most of this gap-narrowing resulted from changes in the characteristics of newly hired teachers, and largely has been driven by the virtual elimination of newly hired uncertified teachers coupled with an influx of teachers with strong academic backgrounds in the Teaching Fellows program and Teach for America. The improvements in teacher qualifications, especially among the poorest schools, appear to have resulted in improved student achievement. By estimating the effect of teacher attributes using a value-added model, the analyses in this paper predict that observable qualifications of teachers resulted in average improved achievement for students in the poorest decile of schools of .03 standard deviations, about half the difference between being taught by a first year teacher and a more experienced teacher. If limited to teachers who are in the first or second year of teaching, where changes in qualifications are greatest, the gain equals two-thirds of the first-year experience effect.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 14021.

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Date of creation: Jun 2008
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Publication status: published as Donald Boyd & Hamilton Lankford & Susanna Loeb & Jonah Rockoff & James Wyckoff, 2008. "The narrowing gap in New York City teacher qualifications and its implications for student achievement in high-poverty schools," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(4), pages 793-818.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:14021

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  1. Donald Boyd & Pam Grossman & Hamilton Lankford & Susanna Loeb & James Wyckoff, 2008. "Who Leaves? Teacher Attrition and Student Achievement," NBER Working Papers 14022, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Charles T. Clotfelter & Helen F. Ladd & Jacob L. Vigdor, 2006. "Teacher-Student Matching and the Assessment of Teacher Effectiveness," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 41(4).
  3. Jonah E. Rockoff, 2004. "The Impact of Individual Teachers on Student Achievement: Evidence from Panel Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(2), pages 247-252, May.
  4. Krieg, John M., 2006. "Teacher quality and attrition," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 13-27, February.
  5. Eric A. Hanushek & John F. Kain & Steven G. Rivkin, 2001. "Why Public Schools Lose Teachers," NBER Working Papers 8599, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Eric A. Hanushek & John F. Kain & Steven G. Rivkin, 1998. "Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement," NBER Working Papers 6691, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Kane, Thomas J. & Rockoff, Jonah E. & Staiger, Douglas O., 2008. "What does certification tell us about teacher effectiveness? Evidence from New York City," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 615-631, December.
  8. Daniel Aaronson & Lisa Barrow & William Sander, 2002. "Teachers and student achievement in the Chicago public high schools," Working Paper Series WP-02-28, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  9. Eric A. Hanushek & John F. Kain & Daniel M. O'Brien & Steven G. Rivkin, 2005. "The Market for Teacher Quality," NBER Working Papers 11154, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Bonesronning, Hans & Falch, Torberg & Strom, Bjarne, 2005. "Teacher sorting, teacher quality, and student composition," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 457-483, February.
  11. Charles T. Clotfelter & Helen F. Ladd & Jacob L. Vigdor, 2007. "How and Why do Teacher Credentials Matter for Student Achievement?," NBER Working Papers 12828, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Cited by:
  1. Konstantopoulos, Spyros & Sun, Min, 2011. "Is the Persistence of Teacher Effects in Early Grades Larger for Lower-Performing Students?," IZA Discussion Papers 5974, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Jesse Rothstein, 2008. "Student Sorting and Bias in Value Added Estimation: Selection on Observables and Unobservables," Working Papers 1054, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Center for Economic Policy Studies..
  3. Jonah E. Rockoff & Brian A. Jacob & Thomas J. Kane & Douglas O. Staiger, 2008. "Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One?," NBER Working Papers 14485, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Jesse Rothstein, 2010. "Teacher Quality in Educational Production: Tracking, Decay, and Student Achievement," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 125(1), pages 175-214, February.
  5. Allison Atteberry & Susanna Loeb & James Wyckoff, 2013. "Do First Impressions Matter? Improvement in Early Career Teacher Effectiveness," NBER Working Papers 19096, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Donald Boyd & Pam Grossman & Hamilton Lankford & Susanna Loeb & James Wyckoff, 2008. "Who Leaves? Teacher Attrition and Student Achievement," NBER Working Papers 14022, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Charles T. Clotfelter & Helen F. Ladd & Jacob L. Vigdor, 2012. "The Aftermath of Accelerating Algebra: Evidence from a District Policy Initiative," NBER Working Papers 18161, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Robert G. Valletta & K. Jody Hoff & Jane S. Lopus, 2012. "Lost in translation? teacher training and outcomes in high school economics classes," Working Paper Series 2012-03, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  9. Steven Glazerman & Hanley Chiang & Alison Wellington & Jill Constantine & Dan Player, 2011. "Impacts of Performance Pay Under the Teacher Incentive Fund: Study Design Report," Mathematica Policy Research Reports 7407, Mathematica Policy Research.
  10. Newton, Xiaoxia A. & Poon, Rebecca C. & Nunes, Nicole L. & Stone, Elisa M., 2013. "Research on teacher education programs: Logic model approach," Evaluation and Program Planning, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 88-96.
  11. Eric A. Hanushek, 2010. "The Economic Value of Higher Teacher Quality," NBER Working Papers 16606, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Arlette Beltrán & Janice Seinfeld, 2011. "Hacia una educación de calidad en el Perú: El heterogéneo impacto de la educación inicial sobre el rendimiento escolar," Working Papers 11-06, Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico, revised Sep 2011.
  13. Richard J. Murnane & John P. Papay, 2010. "Teachers' Views on No Child Left Behind: Support for the Principles, Concerns about the Practices," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 24(3), pages 151-66, Summer.
  14. Mason, Patrick L., 2010. "“Does teacher preparation matter? pupil academic achievement and teacher’s college preparation”," MPRA Paper 20060, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  15. Rockoff, Jonah E. & Speroni, Cecilia, 2011. "Subjective and objective evaluations of teacher effectiveness: Evidence from New York City," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 687-696, October.
  16. Valletta, Robert G. & Hoff, K. Jody & Lopus, Jane S., 2012. "Lost in Translation? Teacher Training and Outcomes in High School Economics Classes," IZA Discussion Papers 6402, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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