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Value added of teachers in high-poverty schools and lower poverty schools

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Author Info

  • Sass, Tim R.
  • Hannaway, Jane
  • Xu, Zeyu
  • Figlio, David N.
  • Feng, Li

Abstract

Using student-level microdata from 2000–2001 to 2004–2005 from Florida and North Carolina, we compare the effectiveness of teachers in schools serving primarily students from low-income families (>70% free-and-reduced-price-lunch students) with teachers in schools serving more advantaged students. The results show that the average effectiveness of teachers in high poverty schools is in general less than teachers in other schools and there is significantly greater variation in teacher quality among high poverty schools. These differences are largely driven by less productive teachers at the bottom of the teacher effectiveness distribution in high-poverty schools. The bulk of the quality differential is due to differences in the unmeasured characteristics of teachers. We find that the gain in productivity to more experienced teachers from additional experience is much stronger in lower-poverty schools. The lower return to experience in high-poverty schools does not appear to be a result of differences in the quality of teachers who leave teaching or who switch schools, however. Our findings suggest that measures that induce highly effective teachers to move to high-poverty schools and which promote an environment in which teachers’ skills will improve over time are more likely to be successful.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Urban Economics.

Volume (Year): 72 (2012)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 104-122

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Handle: RePEc:eee:juecon:v:72:y:2012:i:2:p:104-122

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/622905

Related research

Keywords: Education; Student achievement; Teacher quality; High-poverty schools;

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References

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  1. Daniel Aaronson & Lisa Barrow & William Sander, 2002. "Teachers and student achievement in the Chicago public high schools," Working Paper Series WP-02-28, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  2. David N. Figlio & Maurice E. Lucas, 2000. "Do High Grading Standards Affect Student Performance?," NBER Working Papers 7985, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Eric A. Hanushek & John F. Kain & Steven G. Rivkin, 1998. "Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement," NBER Working Papers 6691, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Peter Dolton & Wilbert van der Klaauw, 1999. "The Turnover of Teachers: A Competing Risks Explanation," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(3), pages 543-550, August.
  5. Zeyu Xu & Jane Hannaway & Colin Taylor, 2011. "Making a difference? The effects of Teach For America in high school," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 30(3), pages 447-469, Summer.
  6. Cory Koedel & Julian R. Betts, 2011. "Does Student Sorting Invalidate Value-Added Models of Teacher Effectiveness? An Extended Analysis of the Rothstein Critique," Education Finance and Policy, MIT Press, vol. 6(1), pages 18-42, January.
  7. Scafidi, Benjamin & Sjoquist, David L. & Stinebrickner, Todd R., 2007. "Race, poverty, and teacher mobility," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 145-159, April.
  8. Jesse Rothstein, 2008. "Teacher Quality in Educational Production: Tracking, Decay, and Student Achievement," NBER Working Papers 14442, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Jonah E. Rockoff, 2004. "The Impact of Individual Teachers on Student Achievement: Evidence from Panel Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(2), pages 247-252, May.
  10. Kata Mihaly & Daniel F. McCaffrey & J. R. Lockwood & Tim R. Sass, 2010. "Centering and reference groups for estimates of fixed effects: Modifications to felsdvreg," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 10(1), pages 82-103, March.
  11. Donald Boyd & Hamilton Lankford & Susanna Loeb & James Wyckoff, 2005. "The draw of home: How teachers' preferences for proximity disadvantage urban schools," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(1), pages 113-132.
  12. Petra E. Todd & Kenneth I. Wolpin, 2003. "On The Specification and Estimation of The Production Function for Cognitive Achievement," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 113(485), pages F3-F33, February.
  13. C. Kirabo Jackson & Elias Bruegmann, 2009. "Teaching Students and Teaching Each Other: The Importance of Peer Learning for Teachers," NBER Working Papers 15202, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Harris, Douglas N. & Sass, Tim R., 2011. "Teacher training, teacher quality and student achievement," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(7), pages 798-812.
  15. Clotfelter, Charles T. & Ladd, Helen F. & Vigdor, Jacob, 2005. "Who teaches whom? Race and the distribution of novice teachers," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 377-392, August.
  16. Guarino, Cassandra & Reckase, Mark D. & Wooldridge, Jeffrey M., 2012. "Can Value-Added Measures of Teacher Performance Be Trusted?," IZA Discussion Papers 6602, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  17. Eric A. Hanushek & EJohn F. Kain & Steven G. Rivkin, 2004. "Why Public Schools Lose Teachers," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 39(2).
  18. Goldhaber, Dan & Choi, Hyung-Jai & Cramer, Lauren, 2007. "A descriptive analysis of the distribution of NBPTS-certified teachers in North Carolina," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 160-172, April.
  19. Li Feng, 2009. "Opportunity Wages, Classroom Characteristics, and Teacher Mobility," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 75(4), pages 1165-1190, April.
  20. Dan Goldhaber & Betheny Gross & Daniel Player, 2011. "Teacher career paths, teacher quality, and persistence in the classroom: Are public schools keeping their best?," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 30(1), pages 57-87, December.
  21. Dan Goldhaber & Betheny Gross & Daniel Player, 2011. "Teacher Career Paths, Teacher Quality, and Persistence in the Classroom: Are Public Schools Keeping Their Best?," Mathematica Policy Research Reports 6857, Mathematica Policy Research.
  22. Imazeki, Jennifer, 2005. "Teacher salaries and teacher attrition," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 431-449, August.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Maria D. Fitzpatrick & Michael F. Lovenheim, 2013. "Early Retirement Incentives and Student Achievement," NBER Working Papers 19281, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Eric Isenberg & Jeffrey Max & Philip Gleason & Liz Potamites & Robert Santillano & Heinrich Hock & Michael Hansen, 2013. "Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students," Mathematica Policy Research Reports 7942, Mathematica Policy Research.
  3. Melissa A. Clark & Hanley S. Chiang & Tim Silva & Sheena McConnell & Kathy Sonnenfeld & Anastasia Erbe & Michael Puma, 2013. "The Effectiveness of Secondary Math Teachers from Teach For America and the Teaching Fellows Programs," Mathematica Policy Research Reports 7890, Mathematica Policy Research.
  4. Cory Koedel & Jiaxi Li, 2014. "The Efficiency Implications of Using Proportional Evaluations to Shape the Teaching Workforce," Working Papers 1402, Department of Economics, University of Missouri.
  5. Cory Koedel & Mark Ehlert & Eric Parsons & Michael Podgursky, 2012. "Selecting Growth Measures for School and Teacher Evaluations," Working Papers 1210, Department of Economics, University of Missouri.
  6. Jeffrey Max & Steven Glazerman, 2014. "Do Disadvantaged Students Get Less Effective Teaching? Key Findings from Recent Institute of Education Sciences Studies," Mathematica Policy Research Reports 8000, Mathematica Policy Research.
  7. Eric Isenberg & Bing-ru Teh & Elias Walsh, 2013. "Elementary School Data Issues: Implications for Research Using Value-Added Models," Mathematica Policy Research Reports 7948, Mathematica Policy Research.
  8. Elias Walsh & Eric Isenberg, 2013. "How Does a Value-Added Model Compare to the Colorado Growth Model?," Mathematica Policy Research Reports 7949, Mathematica Policy Research.

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