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Ouverture commerciale : condition de la contribution effective du capital humain à la croissance économique des pays en développement

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  • Yves Abessolo

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    (CEREG, Université de Yaoundé II)

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    Abstract

    Dans la littérature actuelle une controverse persiste quant à la validation sur données de panel de l'hypothèse selon laquelle le capital humain contribue à la croissance. Nous confirmons ce résultat à l'aide d'un échantillon comprenant 23 pays d'Afrique subsaharienne entre 1980 et 1997. Cependant, l'estimation sur ces mêmes données de panel de modèles à termes interactifs puis à coefficients variables suggère que la contribution du capital humain à la croissance dépend du taux d'ouverture commerciale. Ce résultat peut s'expliquer par la variation de la rémunération des facteurs, liée d'une part aux changements de la demande de capital humain induits par les échanges et d'autre part aux changements de l'offre relative des facteurs, qui sont amplifiés dans les économies fermées. Les distorsions qui en résultent dans l'affectation du capital humain aux diverses activités économiques sont susceptibles d'influer sur le taux de croissance. The innovation of this paper is the proof of the relationship between human capital and growth, using a sample of 23 subsaharian African countries and six time periods between 1980 and 1997. Nonetheless, calculations from both interactive and variable-coefficient models based on these same panel data suggest that the contribution of human capital to growth depends on the level of commercial opening. The result could be explained by the variation in factor returns linked, on one hand, to trade induced changes in labour demand and, on the other, to changes in relative factor supply which are amplified in closed economies. Distorsions of human-capital allocation are therefore likely to influence the rate of growth. (Full text in french)

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    Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 109.

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    Length: 11 pages
    Date of creation: Apr 2005
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    Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:109

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    1. Amemiya, Takeshi, 1978. "A Note on a Random Coefficients Model," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 19(3), pages 793-96, October.
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    8. Malcolm D. Knight & Delano Villanueva & Norman Loayza, 1992. "Testing the Neoclassical Theory of Economic Growth - A Panel Data Approach," IMF Working Papers 92/106, International Monetary Fund.
    9. Dhaneshwar Ghura & Michael T. Hadjimichael, 1996. "Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 43(3), pages 605-634, September.
    10. Barro, Robert J & Lee, Jong Wha, 1996. "International Measures of Schooling Years and Schooling Quality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(2), pages 218-23, May.
    11. Yves Abessolo, 1998. "Les déterminants de la croissance économique en Afrique subsaharienne : une analyse empirique," Documents de travail 29, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
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