Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Trade Liberalization and Female Labor Force Participation: Evidence from Brazil

Contents:

Author Info

  • Gaddis, Isis

    ()
    (University of Göttingen)

  • Pieters, Janneke

    ()
    (Wageningen University)

Abstract

While there is a large literature analyzing the distributional impacts of trade reforms across the income or skill distribution, very little is known about the gender effects of trade reforms. This paper seeks to fill this gap and investigates the impact of Brazil's 1987-1994 trade liberalization on labor force participation of women. To identify the causal effect of trade reforms we exploit exogenous variation in exposure to tariff reductions across states linked to spatial differences in states' initial industry composition. We find that tariff reductions were associated with an increase in female labor force participation and employment after a period of around two years. Our results are robust to a variety of different approaches in dealing with the potential endogeneity of regional exposure to trade liberalization, alternative measures of trade protection and different time periods. Moreover, we find evidence that employment flows across sectors, especially an accelerated shift from agriculture and manufacturing to trade and other services, but also greater labor market insecurity and male unemployment are behind the observed increase in female economic activity. This suggests that both push and pull factors induced women to join the labor force.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://ftp.iza.org/dp6809.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 6809.

as in new window
Length: 40 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6809

Contact details of provider:
Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org

Order Information:
Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Email:

Related research

Keywords: female labor force participation; trade liberalization; Brazil;

Find related papers by JEL classification:

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Inés Terra & Marisa Bucheli & Carmen Estrades, 2007. "Trade Openness and Gender in Uruguay: a CGE Analysis," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers), Department of Economics - dECON 2407, Department of Economics - dECON.
  2. Gary S. Becker, 1981. "A Treatise on the Family," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number beck81-1.
  3. Ilan Goldfajn & André Minella, 2007. "Capital Flows and Controls in Brazil: What Have We Learned?," NBER Chapters, in: Capital Controls and Capital Flows in Emerging Economies: Policies, Practices and Consequences, pages 349-420 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Francis Green & Andy Dickerson & Jorge Saba Arbache, 2000. "A Picture of Wage Inequality and the Allocation of Labour Through a Period of Trade Liberalisation: The Case of Brazil," Studies in Economics, Department of Economics, University of Kent 0013, Department of Economics, University of Kent.
  5. Gonzaga, Gustavo & Menezes Filho, Naercio & Terra, Cristina, 2006. "Trade liberalization and the evolution of skill earnings differentials in Brazil," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 345-367, March.
  6. Marta Castilho & Marta Menéndez & Aude Sztulman, 2010. "Trade Liberalization, Inequality and Poverty in Brazilian States," Working Papers, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) DT/2010/02, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
  7. J.Salcedo Cain & Rana Hasan & Devashish Mitra, 2010. "Trade Liberalization and Poverty Reduction: New Evidence from Indian States," Working Papers, School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University 3333, School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University, revised Nov 2010.
  8. Krisztina Kis-Katos & Robert Sparrow, 2011. "Child Labor and Trade Liberalization in Indonesia," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 46(4), pages 722-749.
  9. Marcelo de Paiva Abreu, 2004. "Trade Liberalization and the Political Economy of Protection in Brazil since 1987," IDB Publications 9376, Inter-American Development Bank.
  10. Francesco Grigoli, 2012. "The Impact of Trade Integration on Business Cycle Synchronization for Mercosur Countries," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 9(1), pages 103-131, April.
  11. Bradley T. Heim, 2007. "The Incredible Shrinking Elasticities: Married Female Labor Supply, 1978–2002," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 42(4).
  12. Naércio Aquino Menezes-Filho & Marc-Andreas Muendler, 2011. "Labor Reallocation in Response to Trade Reform," NBER Working Papers 17372, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Goldberg, Pinelopi Koujianou & Pavcnik, Nina, 2003. "The Response of the Informal Sector to Trade Liberalization," CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers 3874, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  14. Killingsworth, Mark R. & Heckman, James J., 1987. "Female labor supply: A survey," Handbook of Labor Economics, Elsevier, in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 2, pages 103-204 Elsevier.
  15. Stephen R. G. Jones & W. Craig Riddell, . "The Measurement Of Unemployment: An Empirical Approach," Canadian International Labour Network Working Papers, McMaster University 09, McMaster University.
  16. Pradhan, Jaya Prakash, 2005. "How Do Trade, Foreign Investment, and Technology Affect Employment Patterns in Organized Indian Manufacturing?," MPRA Paper 19010, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  17. Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg & Nina Pavcnik, 2007. "Distributional Effects of Globalization in Developing Countries," NBER Working Papers 12885, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Philip Sauré & Hosny Zoabi, 2009. "Effects of Trade on Female Labor Force Participation," Working Papers 2009-12, Swiss National Bank.
  19. Nina Pavcnik & Andreas Blom & Pinelopi Goldberg & Norbert Schady, 2004. "Trade Liberalization and Industry Wage Structure: Evidence from Brazil," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 18(3), pages 319-344.
  20. Horton, Susan & Kanbur, Ravi & Mazumdar, Dipak, 1991. "Labor markets in an era of adjustment : an overview," Policy Research Working Paper Series 694, The World Bank.
  21. Isis Gaddis & Stephan Klasen, 2011. "Economic Development, Structural Change and Women’s Labor Force Participation A Reexamination of the Feminization U Hypothesis," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 71, Courant Research Centre PEG, revised 25 Jul 2012.
  22. Ernesto Aguayo-Tellez & Jim Airola & Chinhui Juhn, 2010. "Did Trade Liberalization Help Women? The Case of Mexico in the 1990s," NBER Working Papers 16195, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  23. Stephen Knowles & Paula K. Lorgelly, 2002. "Are educational gender gaps a brake on economic development? Some cross-country empirical evidence," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 54(1), pages 118-149, January.
  24. Rizwana Siddiqui, 2009. "Modeling Gender Effects of Pakistan's Trade Liberalization," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 287-321.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Anukriti, S & Kumler, Todd J., 2014. "Tariffs, Social Status, and Gender in India," IZA Discussion Papers 7969, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Klasen, Stephan & Pieters, Janneke, 2013. "What Explains the Stagnation of Female Labor Force Participation in Urban India?," IZA Discussion Papers 7597, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Fischer, Justina A.V., 2014. "Globalized markets, globalized information, and female employment: accounting for regional differences in 30 OECD countries," MPRA Paper 55142, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. World Bank, 2014. "India : Women, Work and Employment," World Bank Other Operational Studies 18737, The World Bank.
  5. Fakih, Ali & Ghazalian, Pascal L., 2013. "Female Labour Force Participation in MENA's Manufacturing Sector: The Implications of Firm-Related and National Factors," IZA Discussion Papers 7197, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Gunatilaka, Ramani, 2013. "To work or not to work? : Factors holding women back from market work in Sri Lanka," ILO Working Papers, International Labour Organization 483840, International Labour Organization.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6809. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.