Trade Liberalization and Female Labor Force Participation: Evidence from Brazil
AbstractWhile there is a large literature analyzing the distributional impacts of trade reforms across the income or skill distribution, very little is known about the gender effects of trade reforms. This paper seeks to fill this gap and investigates the impact of Brazil's 1987-1994 trade liberalization on labor force participation of women. To identify the causal effect of trade reforms we exploit exogenous variation in exposure to tariff reductions across states linked to spatial differences in states' initial industry composition. We find that tariff reductions were associated with an increase in female labor force participation and employment after a period of around two years. Our results are robust to a variety of different approaches in dealing with the potential endogeneity of regional exposure to trade liberalization, alternative measures of trade protection and different time periods. Moreover, we find evidence that employment flows across sectors, especially an accelerated shift from agriculture and manufacturing to trade and other services, but also greater labor market insecurity and male unemployment are behind the observed increase in female economic activity. This suggests that both push and pull factors induced women to join the labor force.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 6809.
Length: 40 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2012
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
- F16 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Labor Market Interactions
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
- J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
- O15 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-09-30 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEM-2012-09-30 (Demographic Economics)
- NEP-INT-2012-09-30 (International Trade)
- NEP-LAB-2012-09-30 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-LAM-2012-09-30 (Central & South America)
- NEP-LMA-2012-09-30 (Labor Markets - Supply, Demand, & Wages)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Hosny Zoabi & Philip Saure, 2010.
"Effects of Trade on Female Labor Force Participation,"
DEGIT Conference Papers
c015_015, DEGIT, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade.
- Philip Sauré & Hosny Zoabi, 2009. "Effects of Trade on Female Labor Force Participation," Working Papers 2009-12, Swiss National Bank.
- Maria Inés Terra & Marisa Bucheli & Carmen Estrades, 2008.
"Trade Openness and Gender in Uruguay: a CGE Analysis,"
Working Papers MPIA
- Inés Terra & Marisa Bucheli & Carmen Estrades, 2007. "Trade Openness and Gender in Uruguay: a CGE Analysis," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 2407, Department of Economics - dECON.
- Nina Pavcnik & Andreas Blom & Pinelopi Goldberg & Norbert Schady, 2004. "Trade Liberalization and Industry Wage Structure: Evidence from Brazil," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 18(3), pages 319-344.
- Gustavo Gonzaga & Naércio Menezes Filho & Maria Cristina Terra, 2005.
"Trade liberalization and the evolution of skill earnings differentials in Brazil,"
Textos para discussÃ£o
503, Department of Economics PUC-Rio (Brazil).
- Gonzaga, Gustavo & Menezes Filho, Naercio & Terra, Cristina, 2006. "Trade liberalization and the evolution of skill earnings differentials in Brazil," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 345-367, March.
- Terra, Maria Cristina T. & Gonzaga, Gustavo & Menezes Filho, Naércio Aquino, 2002. "Trade Liberalization and the Evolution of Skill Earnings Differentials in Brazil," Economics Working Papers (Ensaios Economicos da EPGE) 457, FGV/EPGE Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil).
- Gonzaga, Gustavo & Menezes Filho, Naércio Aquino & Terra, Maria Cristina T., 2005. "Trade Liberalization and the Evolution of Skill Earnings Differentials in Brazil," Economics Working Papers (Ensaios Economicos da EPGE) 585, FGV/EPGE Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil).
- Gustavo Gonzaga & Naércio Menezes Filho & Cristina Terra, 2006. "Trade Liberalization and the Evolution of Skill Earnings Differentials in Brazil," Development Working Papers 216, Centro Studi Luca d\'Agliano, University of Milano.
- Marta Castilho & Marta Menéndez & Aude Sztulman, 2009.
"Trade liberalization, inequality and poverty in Brazilian states,"
- Castilho, Marta & Menéndez, Marta & Sztulman, Aude, 2012. "Trade Liberalization, Inequality, and Poverty in Brazilian States," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(4), pages 821-835.
- Marta Castilho & Marta Menéndez & Aude Sztulman, 2010. "Trade Liberalization, Inequality and Poverty in Brazilian States," Working Papers DT/2010/02, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
- Francis Green & Andy Dickerson & Jorge Saba Arbache, 2000.
"A Picture of Wage Inequality and the Allocation of Labour Through a Period of Trade Liberalisation: The Case of Brazil,"
Studies in Economics
0013, Department of Economics, University of Kent.
- Green, Francis & Dickerson, Andy & Saba Arbache, Jorge, 2001. "A Picture of Wage Inequality and the Allocation of Labor Through a Period of Trade Liberalization: The Case of Brazil," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(11), pages 1923-1939, November.
- Naércio Aquino Menezes-Filho & Marc-Andreas Muendler, 2011.
"Labor Reallocation in Response to Trade Reform,"
NBER Working Papers
17372, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Naércio Aquino Menezes Filho & Marc-Andreas Muendler, 2007. "Labor Reallocation in Response to Trade Reform," CESifo Working Paper Series 1936, CESifo Group Munich.
- Muendler, Marc-Andreas, 2007. "Labor Reallocation in Response to Trade Reform," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt3cm38535, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
- Koujianou Goldberg, Pinelopi & Pavcnik, Nina, 2003.
"The response of the informal sector to trade liberalization,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 463-496, December.
- Pinelopi K. Goldberg & Nina Pavcnik, 2003. "The Response of the Informal Sector to Trade Liberalization," NBER Working Papers 9443, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Goldberg, Pinelopi Koujianou & Pavcnik, Nina, 2003. "The Response of the Informal Sector to Trade Liberalization," CEPR Discussion Papers 3874, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Krisztina Kis-Katos & Robert Sparrow, 2011.
"Child Labor and Trade Liberalization in Indonesia,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 46(4), pages 722-749.
- Rizwana Siddiqui, 2009. "Modeling Gender Effects of Pakistan's Trade Liberalization," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 287-321.
- Pradhan, Jaya Prakash, 2005. "How Do Trade, Foreign Investment, and Technology Affect Employment Patterns in Organized Indian Manufacturing?," MPRA Paper 19010, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Stephen Knowles & Paula K. Lorgelly, 2002. "Are educational gender gaps a brake on economic development? Some cross-country empirical evidence," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 54(1), pages 118-149, January.
- Sztulman, Aude & Menéndez, Marta & Castilho, Marta, 2012. "Trade Liberalization, Inequality and Poverty in Brazilian States," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/1904, Paris Dauphine University.
- Francesco Grigoli, 2012. "The Impact of Trade Integration on Business Cycle Synchronization for Mercosur Countries," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 9(1), pages 103-131, April.
- Stephen R. G. Jones & W. Craig Riddell, .
"The Measurement Of Unemployment: An Empirical Approach,"
Canadian International Labour Network Working Papers
09, McMaster University.
- Stephen R. G. Jones & W. Craig Riddell, 1999. "The Measurement of Unemployment: An Empirical Approach," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(1), pages 147-162, January.
- Horton, Susan & Kanbur, Ravi & Mazumdar, Dipak, 1991. "Labor markets in an era of adjustment : an overview," Policy Research Working Paper Series 694, The World Bank.
- Isis Gaddis & Stephan Klasen, 2011. "Economic Development, Structural Change and Women’s Labor Force Participation A Reexamination of the Feminization U Hypothesis," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 71, Courant Research Centre PEG, revised 25 Jul 2012.
- Gary S. Becker, 1981. "A Treatise on the Family," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number beck81-1.
- Killingsworth, Mark R. & Heckman, James J., 1987. "Female labor supply: A survey," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 2, pages 103-204 Elsevier.
- Bradley T. Heim, 2007. "The Incredible Shrinking Elasticities: Married Female Labor Supply, 1978–2002," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 42(4).
- Ernesto Aguayo-Tellez & Jim Airola & Chinhui Juhn, 2010. "Did Trade Liberalization Help Women? The Case of Mexico in the 1990s," NBER Working Papers 16195, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- J.Salcedo Cain & Rana Hasan & Devashish Mitra, 2010. "Trade Liberalization and Poverty Reduction: New Evidence from Indian States," Working Papers 3333, School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University, revised Nov 2010.
- Klasen, Stephan & Pieters, Janneke, 2013.
"What Explains the Stagnation of Female Labor Force Participation in Urban India?,"
IZA Discussion Papers
7597, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Stephan Klasen & Janneke Pieters, 2013. "What explains the stagnation of female labor force participation in urban India?," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 146, Courant Research Centre PEG.
- Fakih, Ali & Ghazalian, Pascal L., 2013. "Female Labour Force Participation in MENA's Manufacturing Sector: The Implications of Firm-Related and National Factors," IZA Discussion Papers 7197, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.