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Does Military Draft Discourage Enrollment in Higher Education? Evidence from OECD Countries

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Author Info

  • Keller, Katarina

    ()
    (Susquehanna University)

  • Poutvaara, Panu

    ()
    (University of Munich)

  • Wagener, Andreas

    ()
    (Leibniz University of Hannover)

Abstract

Using data from 1960-2000 for OECD countries, we analyze the impact of compulsory military service on the demand for higher education, measured by students enrolled in tertiary education as a share of the working-age population. Based on a theoretical model, we hypothesize that military draft has a negative effect on education. Empirically, we confirm this for the existence of conscription, albeit usually at low statistical significance. However, the intensity of its enforcement, measured by the share of the labor force conscripted by the military and the duration of service, significantly reduces enrollment in higher education.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 4399.

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Length: 25 pages
Date of creation: Sep 2009
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: FinanzArchiv, 2010, 66 (2), 97-120
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4399

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Keywords: conscription; human capital;

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References

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  1. Eric Maurin & Theodora Xenogiani, 2007. "Demand for Education and Labor Market Outcomes: Lessons from the Abolition of Compulsory Conscription in France," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 42(4).
  2. John Bound & Sarah E. Turner, 1999. "Going to War and Going to College: Did World War II and the G.I. Bill Increase Educational Attainment for Returning Veterans?," NBER Working Papers 7452, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Angrist, Joshua & Krueger, Alan B, 1994. "Why Do World War II Veterans Earn More Than Nonveterans?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 12(1), pages 74-97, January.
  4. Thomas Lemieux & David Card, 2001. "Going to College to Avoid the Draft: The Unintended Legacy of the Vietnam War," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 91(2), pages 97-102, May.
  5. Piero Cipollone & Alfonso Rosolia, 2006. "Social Interactions in High School: Lessons from an Earthquake," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers), Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area 596, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  6. Lau, Morten I. & Poutvaara, Panu & Wagener, Andreas, 2004. "Dynamic costs of the draft," Munich Reprints in Economics, University of Munich, Department of Economics 19265, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  7. repec:iza:izadps:dp509 is not listed on IDEAS
  8. Imbens, Guido & van der Klaauw, Wilbert, 1995. "Evaluating the Cost of Conscription in The Netherlands," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 13(2), pages 207-15, April.
  9. Asch, Beth J. & Hosek, James R. & Warner, John T., 2007. "New Economics of Manpower in the Post-Cold War Era," Handbook of Defense Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier.
  10. Warner, John T., 1995. "The economics of military manpower," Handbook of Defense Economics, Elsevier, in: Keith Hartley & Todd Sandler (ed.), Handbook of Defense Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 13, pages 347-398 Elsevier.
  11. John T. Warner & Beth J. Asch, 2001. "The Record and Prospects of the All-Volunteer Military in the United States," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 169-192, Spring.
  12. Fisher, Anthony C, 1969. "The Cost of the Draft and the Cost of Ending the Draft," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 59(3), pages 239-54, June.
  13. Di Pietro, Giorgio, 2009. "Military Conscription and University Enrolment: Evidence from Italy," IZA Discussion Papers 4212, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  14. Sandler,Todd & Hartley,Keith, 1995. "The Economics of Defense," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521447287.
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Cited by:
  1. Thomas K. Bauer & Stefan Bender & Alfredo R. Paloyo & Christoph M. Schmidt, 2011. "Do Guns Displace Books? – The Impact of Compulsory Military Service on Educational Attainment," Ruhr Economic Papers, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen 0260, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
  2. David Card & Ana Rute Cardoso, 2012. "Can Compulsory Military Service Raise Civilian Wages? Evidence from the Peacetime Draft in Portugal," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 4(4), pages 57-93, October.
  3. Poutvaara, Panu & Wagener, Andreas, 2011. "Ending military conscription," Munich Reprints in Economics, University of Munich, Department of Economics 19821, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  4. David Card & Ana Rute Cardoso, 2011. "Can Compulsory Military Service Increase Civilian Wages? Evidence from the Peacetime Draft in Portugal," NBER Working Papers 17694, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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