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Los Retornos a la Educación en Chile: Estimaciones por Corte Transversal y por Cohortes

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  • Claudio Sapelli.

    ()
    (Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.)

Abstract

Se utilizan cortes transversales y cohortes sintéticas para estimar las tasas de retorno a la educación en Chile. Para corte transversal se usa las CASEN de los años 1990 a 2006. Para cohortes sintéticas, las Encuestas de Ocupación del gran Santiago para los años 1957 a 2000 y la encuesta CASEN para los años 1990 a 2006.Los resultados de corte transversal muestran que la tasa de retorno es notoriamente distinta para los distintos niveles educativos. Los datos también muestran una inflexión en la evolución en el tiempo de las tasas de retorno: el alza mostrada en un principio se ha revertido, presentando además una convergencia de tasas. Se observan también fuertes premios a la obtención de títulos (sheepskin effect) para todos los niveles de educación, exceptuando la educación media técnica, donde los resultados no son claros, y la educación técnico profesional, donde esta desagregación no es aplicable. Esta evidencia señala claramente a la educación como una mezcla entre un aumento de la productividad (o capital humano) del individuo y un proceso de señalización hacia el mercado laboral. Los resultados de cohortes sintéticas muestran un nivel de retornos mucho más alto para todos los niveles de educación que los obtenidos a través de la metodología de Mincer, lo que concuerda con la teoría sobre la relación entre los dos métodos. Podemos ver entonces como las estimaciones a través de estudios de cortes transversales subestiman los verdaderos retornos para el proceso educativo en el caso chileno. En términos de la evolución en el tiempo estos resultados muestran también de forma mucho más evidente ir en camino a un cierto nivel de convergencia. Comparando nuestros resultados con estudios internacionales, vemos que las estimaciones a la Mincer muestran, para la educación secundaria y superior, una tasa de retorno mayor en el caso chileno que en la mayoría de los países similares y que todos los países desarrollados. Por último, vemos que al comparar las tasas de retorno en estudios de cohorte, los retornos chilenos son también mucho más altos.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Instituto de Economia. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. in its series Documentos de Trabajo with number 349.

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Date of creation: 2009
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Handle: RePEc:ioe:doctra:349

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Keywords: Synthetic cohorts; mincer equation; rates of return; education;

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References

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  1. James J. Heckman & Lance J. Lochner & Petra E. Todd, 2005. "Earnings Functions, Rates of Return and Treatment Effects: The Mincer Equation and Beyond," NBER Working Papers 11544, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Jhon James Mora, 2003. "Sheepskin effects and screening in Colombia," COLOMBIAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL, UN - RCE - CID.
  3. Boockmann, Bernhard & Steiner, Viktor, 2000. "Cohort effects and the returns to education in West Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 00-05, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  4. Chiswick, Barry R., 1997. "Interpreting the coefficient of schooling in the human capital earnings function," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1790, The World Bank.
  5. Jaeger, David A & Page, Marianne E, 1996. "Degrees Matter: New Evidence on Sheepskin Effects in the Returns to Education," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(4), pages 733-40, November.
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  7. Arias, Omar & McMahon, Walter W., 2001. "Dynamic rates of return to education in the U.S," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 121-138, April.
  8. M. Arrazola & J. De Hevia & M. Risueno & J. F. Sanz, 2003. "Returns to education in Spain: Some evidence on the endogeneity of schooling," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(3), pages 293-304.
  9. Marta Sanmartin, 2001. "Linearity of the return to education and self selection," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(1), pages 133-142.
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  11. Willis, Robert J., 1987. "Wage determinants: A survey and reinterpretation of human capital earnings functions," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 10, pages 525-602 Elsevier.
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Cited by:
  1. Mercedes Teijeiro Álvarez & María Jesús Freire Seoane, 2010. "Las ecuaciones de Mincer y las tasas de rendimiento de la educación en Galicia," Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación volume 5, in: María Jesús Mancebón-Torrubia & Domingo P. Ximénez-de-Embún & José María Gómez-Sancho & Greg (ed.), Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación 5, edition 1, volume 5, chapter 14, pages 285-304 Asociación de Economía de la Educación.
  2. Claudio Sapelli, 2011. "Sudden Stops in Social Mobility: Intergenerational Mobility in Chile," Documentos de Trabajo 400, Instituto de Economia. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile..
  3. Felipe Andrés Lozano-Rojas, 2012. "Human Capital Contracts in Chile: An Exercise Based on Income Data on chilean HE Graduates," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 49(2), pages 185-215, November.
  4. Claudio Sapelli, 2011. "A cohort analysis of the income distribution in Chile," Estudios de Economia, University of Chile, Department of Economics, vol. 38(1 Year 20), pages 223-242, June.
  5. Patrinos, Harry A. & Sakellariou, Chris, 2011. "Quality of Schooling, Returns to Schooling and the 1981 Vouchers Reform in Chile," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 2245-2256.
  6. José Joaquín Brunner, 2013. "The Rationale for Higher Education Investment in Ibero-America," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 319, OECD Publishing.
  7. Viviana Salinas, 2011. "Socioeconomic Differences According to Family Arrangements in Chile," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer, vol. 30(5), pages 677-699, October.
  8. Tomás Rau & Eugenio Rojas & Sergio Urzúa, 2013. "Loans for Higher Education: Does the Dream Come True?," NBER Working Papers 19138, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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