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Gender Inequality and Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa and Arab Countries

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  • Mina Baliamoune-Lutz

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Abstract

This paper uses panel data from African and Arab countries and Arellano-Bond estimations to empirically assess the impact on growth of two primary indicators that are associated with MDG 3; namely the ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary enrolment, and the ratio of 15-24 year-old literate females to males. Our findings indicate that gender inequalities in literacy have a statistically significant negative effect that is robust to changes in the specification. We show that higher gender inequality has an even stronger effect on income growth in Arab countries. In addition, in more open economies, gender inequality in literacy seems to have an additional effect, but this effect is positive; suggesting that trade-induced growth may be accompanied by greater inequalities. The results associated with the effects of gender inequality in primary and secondary enrolment are less robust.

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File URL: http://www.icer.it/docs/wp2007/ICERwp25-07.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by ICER - International Centre for Economic Research in its series ICER Working Papers with number 25-2007.

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Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:icr:wpicer:25-2007

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Related research

Keywords: Growth; gender inequality; literacy; openness to trade; Arellano-Bond estimation;

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References

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  1. Abu-Ghaida, Dina & Klasen, Stephan, 2004. "The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity," IZA Discussion Papers 1031, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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  4. Alderman, Harold & Hoddinott, John & Haddad, Lawrence James & Udry, Christopher, 1995. "Gender differentials in farm productivity," FCND discussion papers 6, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  5. Seguino, Stephanie, 2000. "Gender Inequality and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(7), pages 1211-1230, July.
  6. Caselli, Francesco & Esquivel, Gerardo & Lefort, Fernando, 1996. " Reopening the Convergence Debate: A New Look at Cross-Country Growth Empirics," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 1(3), pages 363-89, September.
  7. Baliamoune, Mina N., 2002. "Assessing the Impact of One Aspect of Globalization on Economic Growth in Africa," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  8. Smith, Lisa C. & Haddad, Lawrence James, 1999. "Explaining child malnutrition in developing countries," FCND discussion papers 60, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  9. Erturk, Korkut & Darity, William Jr., 2000. "Secular Changes in the Gender Composition of Employment and Growth Dynamics in the North and the South," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(7), pages 1231-1238, July.
  10. Stephen Knowles & Paula K. Lorgelly, 2002. "Are educational gender gaps a brake on economic development? Some cross-country empirical evidence," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 54(1), pages 118-149, January.
  11. Dollar, David & Fisman, Raymond & Gatti, Roberta, 2001. "Are women really the "fairer" sex? Corruption and women in government," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 46(4), pages 423-429, December.
  12. Filmer, Deon, 2000. "The structure of social disparities in education : gender and wealth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2268, The World Bank.
  13. Paul Schultz, T., 2002. "Why Governments Should Invest More to Educate Girls," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 207-225, February.
  14. Handa, Sudhanshu, 2000. "The Impact of Education, Income, and Mortality on Fertility in Jamaica," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 173-186, January.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Mina Baliamoune-Lutz, 2007. "Entrepreneurship, Reforms, and Development: Empirical Evidence," ICER Working Papers 38-2007, ICER - International Centre for Economic Research.
  2. Mina Baliamoune-Lutz, 2010. "Growth by Destination (Where you Export Matters): Trade with China and Growth in African Countries," ICER Working Papers 22-2010, ICER - International Centre for Economic Research.
  3. Arusha Cooray, 2009. "Does Democracy Explain Gender Differentials in Education?," CAMA Working Papers 2009-20, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  4. Patricia Justino & Ivan Cardona & Rebecca Mitchell & Catherine Müller, 2012. "Quantifying the Impact of Women’s Participation in Post-Conflict Economic Recovery," HiCN Working Papers 131, Households in Conflict Network.
  5. Fofack, Hippolyte, 2013. "A model of gendered production in colonial Africa and implications for development in the post-colonial period," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6438, The World Bank.
  6. Arusha Cooray, 2012. "Suffrage, Democracy and Gender Equality in Education," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(1), pages 21-47, June.
  7. Fofack, Hippolyte, 2012. "Accounting for gender production from a growth accounting framework in Sub-Saharan Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6153, The World Bank.

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