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Zeitarbeit in Deutschland: Trends und Perspektiven

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  • Michael C. Burda
  • Michael Kvasnicka

Abstract

Temporary help services (THS) offer firms an additional option for flexible adjustment of employment levels. In addition, THS can facilitate new employment for both labor market entrants and job losers. This survey examines the economic significance, the changing regulatory framework, and the recent development of the THS sector in Germany. Declining wages and rising employment shares in THS are suggestive of a safety valve for the primary labor market, especially for unskilled workers. High markups charged by THS firms despite declining relative compensation of THS workers suggest a high shadow price for this form of labor input. Nevertheless, the coincidence of low and falling wages, small sector size, combined with low inflow rates and high overall fluctuation point to supply rather than demand bottlenecks as an explanation for the sector’s overall modest size.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany in its series SFB 649 Discussion Papers with number SFB649DP2005-048.

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Length: 31 pages
Date of creation: Sep 2005
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Handle: RePEc:hum:wpaper:sfb649dp2005-048

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Keywords: Zeitarbeit; temporary agency work; temporary help employment; flexible employment forms;

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References

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  1. Carolyn J. Heinrich & Peter R. Mueser & Kenneth R. Troske, 2005. "Welfare to Temporary Work: Implications for Labor Market Outcomes," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(1), pages 154-173, February.
  2. Kvasnicka, Michael & Werwatz, Axel, 2002. "On the wages of temporary help service workers in Germany," SFB 373 Discussion Papers 2002,70, Humboldt University of Berlin, Interdisciplinary Research Project 373: Quantification and Simulation of Economic Processes.
  3. Susan N. Houseman & Arne L. Kalleberg & George A. Erickcek, 2003. "The role of temporary agency employment in tight labor markets," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 57(1), pages 105-127, October.
  4. David H. Autor & Susan Houseman, 2005. "Do Temporary Help Jobs Improve Labor Market Outcomes for Low-Skilled Workers? Evidence from 'Work First'," NBER Working Papers 11743, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Boockmann, Bernhard & Hagen, Tobias, 2001. "The use of flexible working contracts in West Germany: evidence from an establishment panel," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-33, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  6. Mas-Colell, Andreu & Whinston, Michael D. & Green, Jerry R., 1995. "Microeconomic Theory," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195102680, September.
  7. David H. Autor, 2003. "Outsourcing at Will: The Contribution of Unjust Dismissal Doctrine to the Growth of Employment Outsourcing," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(1), pages 1-42, January.
  8. Michael Kvasnicka & Axel Werwatz, 2002. "Lohneffekte der Zeitarbeit," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 69(49), pages 847-854.
  9. Michael R. Darby & John Haltiwanger & Mark Plant, 1984. "Unemployment-Rate Dynamics and Persistent Unemployment Under RAtional Expectations," UCLA Economics Working Papers 339, UCLA Department of Economics.
  10. Michael Kvasnicka, 2003. "Inside the Black Box of Temporary Help Agencies," Labor and Demography 0310003, EconWPA.
  11. Michael Kvasnicka, 2005. "Does Temporary Agency Work Provide a Stepping Stone to Regular Employment?," Labor and Demography 0510005, EconWPA.
  12. Jochen Kluve & Hartmut Lehmann & Christopher Schmidt, 1998. "Active Labor Market Policies in Poland: Human Capital Enhancement, Stigmatization or Benefit Churning?," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 215, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  13. David H. Autor, 2001. "Why Do Temporary Help Firms Provide Free General Skills Training?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 116(4), pages 1409-1448, November.
  14. Michael Kvasnicka & Axel Werwatz, 2003. "Arbeitsbedingungen und Perspektiven von Zeitarbeitern," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 70(46), pages 717-725.
  15. Walter Y. Oi, 1962. "Labor as a Quasi-Fixed Factor," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70, pages 538.
  16. Elke J. Jahn & Wolfgang Ochel, 2005. "Contracting Out Temporary Help Services in Germany," CESifo Working Paper Series 1580, CESifo Group Munich.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Jochen Späth, 2013. "Non-standard Employment, Working Time Arrangements, Establishment Entry and Exit," IAW Discussion Papers 98, Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW).
  2. Michael Kvasnicka, 2005. "Does Temporary Agency Work Provide a Stepping Stone to Regular Employment?," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2005-031, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
  3. Michael C. Burda & Jennifer Hunt, 2011. "What Explains the German Labor Market Miracle in the Great Recession," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 42(1 (Spring), pages 273-335.
  4. Jahn, Elke J. & Bentzen, Jan, 2010. "What Drives the Demand for Temporary Agency Workers?," IZA Discussion Papers 5333, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Michael Kvasnicka, 2008. "Does Temporary Help Work Provide a Stepping Stone to Regular Employment?," NBER Working Papers 13843, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Michael Schlese, 2012. "Wie viele Leiharbeitskräfte gibt es?: Zur Vergleichbarkeit der Fallzahlen bei Leiharbeit zwischen SOEP und ANÜSTAT," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 486, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  7. Jahn, Elke J. & Pozzoli, Dario, 2013. "The pay gap of temporary agency workers — Does the temp sector experience pay off?," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 48-57.
  8. Brehmer, Wolfram & Seifert, Hartmut, 2008. "Sind atypische Beschäftigungsverhältnisse prekär? : eine empirische Analyse sozialer Risiken (Are atypical employment relationships precarious? : an empirical analysis of social risks)," Zeitschrift für ArbeitsmarktForschung - Journal for Labour Market Research, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany], vol. 41(4), pages 501-531.
  9. Oberst, Mathias & Schank, Thorsten & Schnabel, Claus, 2006. "Interne Arbeitsmärkte und Einsatz temporärer Arbeitsverhältnisse : Eine Fallstudie mit Daten eines deutschen Dienstleistungsunternehmens," Discussion Papers 46, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics.
  10. Kai Daniel Schmid & Ulrike Stein, 2013. "Explaining Rising Income Inequality in Germany, 1991-2010," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 592, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  11. Bernhard, Sarah & Hohmeyer, Katrin & Jozwiak, Eva & Koch, Susanne & Kruppe, Thomas & Stephan, Gesine & Wolff, Joachim, 2008. "Aktive Arbeitsmarktpolitik in Deutschland und ihre Wirkungen," IAB-Forschungsbericht 200802, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].

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