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The Emigration of Immigrants, Return vs. Onward Migration: Evidence from Sweden

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  • Nekby, Lena

    ()
    (Dept. of Economics, Stockholm University)

Abstract

Using data on registered emigration from Sweden from 1991-2000, this study analyzes emigration propensities for natives and immigrants delineating among immigrant emigrants between return and onward migration. Return migration is defined as migration back to source countries and onward migration as emigration to third country destinations. Onward migration constitutes an increasing proportion of emigration from Sweden and is the more common form of emigration among immigrants from Africa and Asia. Results indicate that emigrants in general are positively selected in terms of upper education, a result driven by the positive association between upper education and emigration among onward migrants. Predicted age-income profiles show that although emigrants in general have higher adjusted mean income levels, up to the age of 35-40, than non-emigrants, onward migrants have lower predicted income levels across the age distribution due to this groups relatively low employment levels in Sweden.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Stockholm University, Department of Economics in its series Research Papers in Economics with number 2004:7.

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Length: 26 pages
Date of creation: 20 Aug 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hhs:sunrpe:2004_0007

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Postal: Department of Economics, Stockholm, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
Phone: +46 8 16 20 00
Fax: +46 8 16 14 25
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Web page: http://www.ne.su.se/
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Keywords: Emigration; Return Migration; Onward Migration; Immigrant/Emigrant Earnings;

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References

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  1. Dustmann, Christian, 2003. "Return migration, wage differentials, and the optimal migration duration," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 353-369, April.
  2. Rosholm, Michael & Scott, Kirk & Husted, Leif, 2000. "The Times They Are A-Changin' Organizational Change and Immigrant Employment Opportunities in Scandinavia," CLS Working Papers 00-7, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research.
  3. Borjas, George J, 1989. "Immigrant and Emigrant Earnings: A Longitudinal Study," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 27(1), pages 21-37, January.
  4. Amelie Constant & Douglas S. Massey, 2003. "Self-selection, earnings, and out-migration: A longitudinal study of immigrants to Germany," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 631-653, November.
  5. Borjas, George J & Bratsberg, Bernt, 1996. "Who Leaves? The Outmigration of the Foreign-Born," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(1), pages 165-76, February.
  6. Dustmann, C, 1993. "Earnings Adjustment of Temporary Migrants," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 6(2), pages 153-68, May.
  7. Heckman, James J & Honore, Bo E, 1990. "The Empirical Content of the Roy Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(5), pages 1121-49, September.
  8. George J. Borjas, 1987. "Self-Selection and the Earnings of Immigrants," NBER Working Papers 2248, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Edin, P.-A. & Lalonde, R.J. & Aslund, O., 2000. "Emigration of Immigrants and Measures of Immigrant Assimilation: Evidence from Sweden," Papers 2000-13, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
  10. Constant, Amelie F. & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2003. "The Dynamics of Repeat Migration: A Markov Chain Analysis," IZA Discussion Papers 885, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. George J. Borjas, 1998. "The Economic Progress of Immigrants," NBER Working Papers 6506, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. George J. Borjas & Richard B. Freeman, 1992. "Immigration and the Workforce: Economic Consequences for the United States and Source Areas," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number borj92-1, May.
  13. Christian Dustmann, 1996. "An Economic Analysis of Return Migration," Discussion Papers 96-02 ISSN 1350-6722, University College London, Department of Economics.
  14. Pieter Bevelander & Helena Skyt Nielsen, 2001. "Declining employment success of immigrant males in Sweden: Observed or unobserved characteristics?," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 14(3), pages 455-471.
  15. Galor, Oded & Stark, Oded, 1991. "The probability of return migration, migrants' work effort, and migrants' performance," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 399-405, April.
  16. Dustmann, Christian, 2000. "Temporary Migration and Economic Assimilation," IZA Discussion Papers 186, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  17. Fernando Ramos, 1992. "Out-Migration and Return Migration of Puerto Ricans," NBER Chapters, in: Immigration and the Workforce: Economic Consequences for the United States and Source Areas, pages 49-66 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Longva,P. & Raaum,O., 2000. "Earnings assimilation of immigrants in Norway : a reappraisal," Memorandum 05/2000, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
  19. Hill, John K., 1987. "Immigrant decisions concerning duration of stay and migratory frequency," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 221-234, February.
  20. Borjas, George J, 1985. "Assimilation, Changes in Cohort Quality, and the Earnings of Immigrants," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(4), pages 463-89, October.
  21. Borjas, George J., 1999. "The economic analysis of immigration," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 28, pages 1697-1760 Elsevier.
  22. DaVanzo, Julie, 1983. "Repeat Migration in the United States: Who Moves Back and Who Moves On?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(4), pages 552-59, November.
  23. Bevelander, Pieter, 1999. "Declining Employment Assimilation of Immigrants in Sweden: Observed or Unobserved Characteristics?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2132, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  24. Longva, Pal, 2001. "Out-migration of immigrants : implications for assimilation analysis," Memorandum 04/2001, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Constant, Amelie F. & Nottmeyer, Olga & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2012. "The Economics of Circular Migration," IZA Discussion Papers 6940, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Govert E. Bijwaard, 2008. "Modeling Migration Dynamics of Immigrants," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 08-070/4, Tinbergen Institute.
  3. Torben Kuhlenkasper & Max Friedrich Steinhardt, 2012. "Who Leaves and When?: Selective Outmigration of Immigrants from Germany," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 490, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  4. Marcin Holda & Katarzyna Saczuk & Pawel Strzelecki & Robert Wyszynski, 2011. "Settlers and Guests - Determinants of the Plans of Return Migration from UK and Ireland to Poland in the Period 2007-2009," National Bank of Poland Working Papers 84, National Bank of Poland, Economic Institute.
  5. Govert E. Bijwaard, 2008. "Modeling Migration Dynamics of Immigrants," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 08-070/4, Tinbergen Institute.
  6. Christian Dustmann & Joseph-Simon Görlach, 2014. "Selective Outmigration and the Estimation of Immigrants’ Earnings Profiles," Norface Discussion Paper Series 2014002, Norface Research Programme on Migration, Department of Economics, University College London.
  7. Govert Bijwaard, 2010. "Immigrant migration dynamics model for The Netherlands," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 23(4), pages 1213-1247, September.
  8. Christian Dustmann & Albrecht Glitz, 2011. "Migration and Education," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1105, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
  9. Martí Sempere, Mónica & Ródenas Calatayud, Carmen, 2012. "Re-migration in Spain: an approach to its determinants," Investigaciones Regionales, Asociación Española de Ciencia Regional, issue 22, pages 105-128.
  10. Böhlmark, Anders, 2005. "Age at Immigration and School Performance: A Siblings Analysis Using Swedish Register Data," Working Paper Series 6/2005, Swedish Institute for Social Research, revised 10 Dec 2007.
  11. Govert Bijwaard & Jackline Wahba, 2013. "Do High-Income or Low-Income Immigrants Leave Faster?," Norface Discussion Paper Series 2013013, Norface Research Programme on Migration, Department of Economics, University College London.
  12. Elisa Barbiano di Belgiojoso & Livia Elisa Ortensi, 2013. "Should I stay or should I go? The case of Italy," RIEDS - Rivista Italiana di Economia, Demografia e Statistica - Italian Review of Economics, Demography and Statistics, SIEDS Societa' Italiana di Economia Demografia e Statistica, vol. 0(3-4), pages 31-38, July-Dece.
  13. Renata Ivanova & Byeongju Jeong, 2011. "Why Don't Migrants with Secondary Education Return?," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp449, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economic Institute, Prague.
  14. Ça?lar Özden & Maurice Schiff, 2007. "International Migration, Economic Development and Policy," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6766, October.
  15. Kristi Anniste & Tiit Tammaru, 2014. "Ethnic differences in integration levels and return migration intentions," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 30(13), pages 377-412, February.

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