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Branching of banks and union decline

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  • Alexey Levkov
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    Abstract

    This paper proposes a novel explanation for the decline in unions in the United States since the late 1970s: state-by-state removal of geographical restrictions on branching of banks. Bank branch deregulation reduces union membership in the non-banking sectors by intensifying entry of new firms, especially in sectors with high dependence on external finance. New firm entry, in turn, is associated with a reduction in union wage premium, and subsequently leads to adverse union voting. I provide empirical evidence for these channels using repeated cross-sectional and panel data of U.S. workers and union representation election outcomes.

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    File URL: http://www.bostonfed.org/bankinfo/qau/wp/2010/qau1007.htm
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Boston in its series Risk and Policy Analysis Unit Working Paper with number QAU10-7.

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    Date of creation: 2010
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    Handle: RePEc:fip:fedbqu:qau10-7

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    Keywords: Branch banks ; Labor unions;

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    1. David H. Autor & John J. Donohue & Stewart J. Schwab, 2006. "The Costs of Wrongful-Discharge Laws," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(2), pages 211-231, May.
    2. Thomas J. Holmes, 2006. "Geographic spillover of unionism," Staff Report 368, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
    3. Demyanyk, Yuliya & Ostergaard, Charlotte & Sorensen, Bent E, 2006. "US Banking Deregulation, Small Businesses and Interstate Insurance of Personal Income," CEPR Discussion Papers 5863, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Donald Morgan & Bertrand Rime & Philip Strahan, 2003. "Bank Integration and State Business Cycles," NBER Working Papers 9704, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Guadalupe, Maria, 2005. "Product Market Competition, Returns to Skill and Wage Inequality," IZA Discussion Papers 1556, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Ross Levine & Alexey Levkov & Yona Rubinstein, 2008. "Racial Discrimination and Competition," NBER Working Papers 14273, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. David G. Blanchflower & Richard B. Freeman, 1990. "Going Different Ways: Unionism in the U.S. and Other Advanced O.E.C.D. Countries," NBER Working Papers 3342, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Kerr, William R. & Nanda, Ramana, 2009. "Democratizing entry: Banking deregulations, financing constraints, and entrepreneurship," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(1), pages 124-149, October.
    9. Christofides, Louis N & Oswald, Andrew J, 1992. "Real Wage Determination and Rent-Sharing in Collective Bargaining Agreements," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 107(3), pages 985-1002, August.
    10. David Card, 1996. "Deregulation and Labor Earnings in the Airline Industry," NBER Working Papers 5687, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Demyanyk, Yuliya, 2008. "U.S. banking deregulation and self-employment: A differential impact on those in need," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 60(1-2), pages 165-178.
    12. Philippe Aghion & Nicholas Bloom & Richard Blundell & Rachel Griffith & Peter Howitt, 2002. "Competition and innovation: an inverted U relationship," IFS Working Papers W02/04, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    13. William T. Dickens & Jonathan S. Leonard, 1985. "Accounting For The Decline in Union Membership," NBER Working Papers 1275, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Steven M. Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & BRUCE C. PETERSEN, 1988. "Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 19(1), pages 141-206.
    15. Nicola Cetorelli & Philip E. Strahan, 2004. "Finance as a Barrier to Entry: Bank Competition and Industry Structure in Local U.S. Markets," NBER Working Papers 10832, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. White, Eugene Nelson, 1982. "The Political Economy of Banking Regulation, 1864–1933," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(01), pages 33-40, March.
    17. Abowd, John M & Lemieux, Thomas, 1993. "The Effects of Product Market Competition on Collective Bargaining Agreements: The Case of Foreign Competition in Canada," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 108(4), pages 983-1014, November.
    18. Martin Goetz, 2012. "Bank diversification, market structure and bank risk taking: theory and evidence from U.S. commercial banks," Risk and Policy Analysis Unit Working Paper QAU12-2, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
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