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U.S. banking deregulation and self-employment: a differential impact on those in need

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  • Yuliya Demyanyk

Abstract

Starting in 1978, the U.S. banking sector was gradually deregulated in terms of restrictions on geographical expansion. This paper examines the impact of intrastate branching deregulation on (state-specific) self-employment income growth rate. If postreform changes in the banking structure led to improved lending to previously underserved (potential) businessmen, their self-employment income would accelerate, as banks are the prime source of finance for self-employment. Based on a simple model adopted from Evans and Jovanovic (1989), it is hypothesized that banking deregulation would particularly impact self-employment of discriminated against social groups. Consistent with the hypothesis, cross-state evidence suggests that the growth rate of self-employment income increased after reform, with the effect being more pronounced for women and non-white minorities at the low end of income distribution. Based on the obtained results, this paper suggests that more competitive banking environment after branching reform has mitigated prejudicial discrimination in lending. The analysis casts light on real effects of banking deregulation, on the effect of onsolidation in the banking sector on individuals targeted by the Equal Credit Opportunity (ECOA) and the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA), and on a function of competition in reducing discrimination.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis in its series Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers with number 2006-01.

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Date of creation: 2006
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedlsp:2006-01

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Keywords: Bank supervision ; Banks and banking;

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Beck, T.H.L. & Levine, R. & Levkov, A., 2009. "Big Bad Banks? The Winners and Losers From Bank Deregulation in the United States," Discussion Paper 2009-56, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  2. Ross Levine & Alexey Levkov & Yona Rubinstein, 2011. "Racial Discrimination and Competition," CEP Discussion Papers dp1069, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  3. Alexey Levkov, 2010. "Branching of banks and union decline," Risk and Policy Analysis Unit Working Paper QAU10-7, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  4. Yuliya Demyanyk & Charlotte Ostergaard & Bent E. Sorensen, 2008. "Risk sharing and portfolio allocation in EMU," European Economy - Economic Papers 334, Directorate General Economic and Monetary Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
  5. Beck, T.H.L. & Levine, R. & Levkov, A., 2007. "Big bad banks? The impact of U.S. branch deregulation on income distribution," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3508402, Tilburg University.
  6. Yuliya Demyanyk, 2006. "U.S. banking deregulation and self-employment: a differential impact on those in need," Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers 2006-01, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.

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