Intra- and Extra-Union Flexibility in Meeting the European Union's Emission Reduction Targets
AbstractThe EU has proposed four flexibility mechanisms for the regulation of greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2013-2020: (1) the Emissions Trade Scheme (ETS), a permit market between selected companies; (2) trade in non-ETS allotments between Member States; (3) the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to purchase offsets in developing countries; and (4) trade in CDM warrants between Member States. This paper shows that aggregate abatement costs fall as flexibility increases. However, limited flexibility creates rents so that increasing flexibility raises costs in some Member States. Costs are reduced more by the CDM than by non-ETS trade. The CDM warrants market reduces costs by a small amount only; market power is a real issue. However, the warrants market is obsolete in case there is non-ETS trade. The CDM leads to price convergence between the ETS and non-ETS market. There would be one price for carbon in the European Union if the proposed limits on CDM access are relaxed slightly
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) in its series Papers with number WP290.
Date of creation: Apr 2009
Date of revision:
Other versions of this item:
- Tol, Richard S.J., 2009. "Intra- and extra-union flexibility in meeting the European Union's emission reduction targets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4329-4336, November.
- NEP-ALL-2009-05-09 (All new papers)
- NEP-EEC-2009-05-09 (European Economics)
- NEP-ENE-2009-05-09 (Energy Economics)
- NEP-ENV-2009-05-09 (Environmental Economics)
- NEP-REG-2009-05-09 (Regulation)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Seán Lyons & Karen Mayor & Richard S.J. Tol, 2008. "Environmental Accounts for the Republic of Ireland: 1990-2005," Papers WP223, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
- Frances Ruane & Xiaoheng Zhang, 2007. "Location Choices of the Pharmaceutical Industry in Europe after 1992," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp220, IIIS.
- Gorecki, Paul K. & Lyons, Sean & Tol, Richard S.J., 2010. "EU climate change policy 2013-2020: Using the Clean Development Mechanism more effectively in the non-EU-ETS Sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(11), pages 7466-7475, November.
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