Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login

White Certificates for energy efficiency improvement with energy taxes: A theoretical economic model

Contents:

Author Info

  • Oikonomou, Vlasis
  • Jepma, Catrinus
  • Becchis, Franco
  • Russolillo, Daniele

Abstract

In this paper we analyze interactions of two energy policy instruments, namely a White Certificates (WhC) scheme as an innovative policy instrument for energy efficiency improvement and energy taxation. These policy instruments differ in terms of objectives and final impacts on the price of electricity. We examine the effect of these policy instruments in the electricity sector, focusing on electricity producers and suppliers in a competitive market. Using microeconomic theory, we identify synergies between market players and demonstrate the total effect on the electricity price when suppliers internalize the behaviour of producers in their decisions. This model refers to an ideal market situation of full liberalization. The cases we examine consist of electricity producers with and without a carbon tax, electricity suppliers with and without an electricity tax, and with WhC obligations. Furthermore, we present a parallel implementation of WhC for electricity suppliers with carbon tax on electricity producers and an electricity tax with WhC obligations to electricity suppliers. We demonstrate differences in optimization behaviour of producers and suppliers. Based on a couple of cases of WhC with carbon and electricity taxes, various positive and negative effects of both schemes in terms of target achievement and efficiency are present, which can lead to an added value of such schemes in the policy mix, although uncertainties of outcomes are quite high. A basic finding is that in a merit order several parameters can increase final electricity price after the implementation of different policies: demand for electricity and electricity supply cost at a large scale and then follow the level of level of obligation for energy saving, level of penalty, and price of WhC (representing the marginal costs of energy saving projects). The impact magnitude of parameters depends on the values chosen and on the initial position of suppliers (i.e. if their actual behaviour deviates from full compliance with targets).

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V7G-4SCDB2K-1/2/d722f4e8ef9165bb68e739852ec7d519
Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Economics.

Volume (Year): 30 (2008)
Issue (Month): 6 (November)
Pages: 3044-3062

as in new window
Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:30:y:2008:i:6:p:3044-3062

Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/eneco

Related research

Keywords: Energy efficiency White Certificates Energy taxes;

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Baranzini, Andrea & Goldemberg, Jose & Speck, Stefan, 2000. "A future for carbon taxes," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 395-412, March.
  2. Bovenberg, A.L. & Goulder, L.H. & Gurney, D.J., 2003. "Efficiency Costs of Meeting Industry-Distributional Constraints under Environmental Permits and Taxes," Discussion Paper 2003-86, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  3. Pizer, William A., 2002. "Combining price and quantity controls to mitigate global climate change," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(3), pages 409-434, September.
  4. Baumol,William J. & Oates,Wallace E., 1988. "The Theory of Environmental Policy," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521311120, October.
  5. Speck, Stefan, 1999. "Energy and carbon taxes and their distributional implications," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(11), pages 659-667, October.
  6. Ekins, Paul & Barker, Terry, 2001. " Carbon Taxes and Carbon Emissions Trading," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(3), pages 325-76, July.
  7. Langniss, Ole & Praetorius, Barbara, 2006. "How much market do market-based instruments create? An analysis for the case of "white" certificates," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 200-211, January.
  8. Ekins, Paul, 1999. "European environmental taxes and charges: recent experience, issues and trends," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 39-62, October.
  9. Vehmas, Jarmo, 2005. "Energy-related taxation as an environmental policy tool--the Finnish experience 1990-2003," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(17), pages 2175-2182, November.
  10. Zhang, ZhongXiang & Baranzini, Andrea, 2000. "What do we know about carbon taxes? an inquiry into their impacts on competitiveness and distribution of income," MPRA Paper 13225, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Jan 2003.
  11. Pearce, David, 2006. "The political economy of an energy tax: The United Kingdom's Climate Change Levy," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 149-158, March.
  12. Birkelund, Hugo & Gjelsvik, Eystein & Aaserud, Morten, 1994. "The EU carbon/energy tax Effects in a distorted energy market," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 22(8), pages 657-665, August.
  13. Ramos-Real, Francisco Javier, 2005. "Cost functions and the electric utility industry. A contribution to the debate on deregulation," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 69-87, January.
  14. Boyd, Roy & Uri, Noel D., 1991. "The impact of a broad based energy tax on the US economy," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 258-273, October.
  15. Baumol,William J. & Oates,Wallace E., 1988. "The Theory of Environmental Policy," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521322249, October.
  16. Ghalwash, Tarek, 2007. "Energy taxes as a signaling device: An empirical analysis of consumer preferences," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 29-38, January.
  17. Bosello, Francesco & Carraro, Carlo, 2001. "Recycling energy taxes: impacts on a disaggregated labour market," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 569-594, September.
  18. Roberton Williams, 2002. "Prices vs. Quantities vs. Tradable Quantities," NBER Working Papers 9283, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Manne, Alan S. & Richels, Richard G., 1993. "The EC proposal for combining carbon and energy taxes The implications for future CO2 emissions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 5-12, January.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Chai, Jian & Guo, Ju-E & Wang, Shou-Yang & Lai, Kin Keung, 2009. "Why does energy intensity fluctuate in China?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5717-5731, December.
  2. Gries, Thomas, 2011. "Climate and Industrial Policy in an Asymmetric World," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:30:y:2008:i:6:p:3044-3062. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.