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Toll competition among congested roads

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  • Eduardo Engel

    ()

  • Ronald Fischer

    ()

  • Alexander Galetovic

    ()

Abstract

A growing number of roads are currently financed by the private sector via Build-Operate-and-Transfer (BOT) schemes. When the franchised road has no close substitute, the government must regulate tolls. Yet when there are many ways of getting from one point to another, regulation may be avoided by allowing competition between several franchise owners. This paper studies toll competition among private roads with congestion. The paper derives two main results. First, we find sufficient conditions for the existence of an equilibrium in pure strategies with strictly positive tolls. Equilibrium congestion is less than optimal, which runs counter to what is expected from price competition. While a lower toll reduces the out-of-pocket cost paid by a user, it increases the congestion cost thereby reducing the drivers' willingness to pay for using the road. Franchise holders partially internalize congestion costs when setting tolls, which softens price competition. Second, when demand and the number of roads increase at the same rate, tolls converge to the socially optimal level - that is, in the limit equilibrium tolls are just enough to make each driver internalize the congestion externality.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile in its series Documentos de Trabajo with number 54.

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Date of creation: 1999
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Handle: RePEc:edj:ceauch:54

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References

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Xiao, Feng & Yang, Hai & Han, Deren, 2007. "Competition and efficiency of private toll roads," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 292-308, March.
  2. Pio Baake & Kay Mitusch, 2007. "Competition with Congestible Networks," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 91(2), pages 151-176, June.
  3. Daniel Albalate & Germa Bel, 2008. "Motorways, tolls and road safety.Evidence from European Panel Data," IREA Working Papers 200802, University of Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics, revised Feb 2008.
  4. Andrés Pereira, 2001. "Teoría de subastas y concesiones de carreteras," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 1701, Department of Economics - dECON.
  5. Ubbels, Barry & Verhoef, Erik T., 2008. "Governmental competition in road charging and capacity choice," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 174-190, March.
  6. Melo, Emerson, 2014. "Price competition, free entry, and welfare in congested markets," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 53-72.
  7. Engel, Eduardo & Fischer, Ronald & Galetovic, Alexander, 2005. "Highway franchising and real estate values," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(3), pages 432-448, May.
  8. van den Berg, Vincent A.C. & Verhoef, Erik T., 2012. "Is the travel time of private roads too short, too long, or just right?," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 46(8), pages 971-983.
  9. Erik T. Verhoef, 2007. "Private Roads," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 07-093/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 25 Jun 2008.
  10. Tan, Zhijia, 2012. "Capacity and toll choice of an add-on toll road under various ownership regimes," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(6), pages 1080-1092.
  11. Paul Calcott & Shuntian Yao, 2005. "Competition between highway operators: can we expect toll differentiation?," Economic Growth centre Working Paper Series 0504, Nanyang Technolgical University, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Economic Growth centre.
  12. Vincent Van Den Berg, 2011. "The effect of private road supply on the volume/capacity ratio when firms compete Stackelberg in Road Capacity," ERSA conference papers ersa11p1203, European Regional Science Association.
  13. Liu, Tian-Liang & Chen, Jian & Huang, Hai-Jun, 2011. "Existence and efficiency of oligopoly equilibrium under toll and capacity competition," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(6), pages 908-919.
  14. Daniel Albalate & Jordi Perdiguero, 2012. "“Entry Regulation Asymmetries and Gasoline Competition in a Mixed Motorway Network”," IREA Working Papers 201218, University of Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics, revised Nov 2012.
  15. José R. Correa & Nicolás Figueroa & Nicolás E. Stier-Moses, 2008. "Pricing with markups in industries with increasing marginal costs," Documentos de Trabajo 256, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
  16. Maria Dementyeva & Paul R. Koster & Erik T. Verhoef, 2013. "Regulation of Road Accident Externalities when Insurance Companies have Market Power," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-019/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.

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