Female Employment and Fertility in Rural China
AbstractData on 2,288 married women from the 2006 China Health and Nutrition Survey are deployed to study how off-farm female employment affects fertility. Such employment reduces a married woman's actual number of children by 0.64, her preferred number by 0.48, and her probability of having more than one child by 54.8 percent. Causality flows in both directions; hence, we use well validated instrumental variables to estimate employment status. China has deep concerns with both female employment and population size. Moreover, female employment is growing quickly. Hence, its implications for fertility must be understood. Ramifications for China's one-child policy are discussed.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government in its series Working Paper Series with number rwp10-011.
Date of creation: Mar 2010
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: 79 JFK Street, Cambridge, MA 02138
Web page: http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/research/working_papers/index.htm
More information through EDIRC
Other versions of this item:
- J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
- J18 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Public Policy
- O15 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2010-06-04 (All new papers)
- NEP-CNA-2010-06-04 (China)
- NEP-DEV-2010-06-04 (Development)
- NEP-LAB-2010-06-04 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-LTV-2010-06-04 (Unemployment, Inequality & Poverty)
- NEP-TRA-2010-06-04 (Transition Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Smith, Richard J & Blundell, Richard W, 1986. "An Exogeneity Test for a Simultaneous Equation Tobit Model with an Application to Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(3), pages 679-85, May.
- Carol Scotese Lehr, 2003.
"Evidence on the Demographic Transition,"
0302, VCU School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Zhang, Junsen, 1990. "Socioeconomic Determinants of Fertility in China: A Microeconometric Analysis," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 3(2), pages 105-23, August.
- Hongbin Li & Scott Rozelle & Linxiu Zhang, 2004. "Micro-credit programs and off-farm migration in China," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(3), pages 209-223, October.
- Avraham Ebenstein, 2009. "When is the Local Average Treatment Close to the Average?: Evidence from Fertility and Labor Supply," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 44(4).
- Jolliffe, Dean & Campos, Nauro F., 2005.
"Does market liberalisation reduce gender discrimination? Econometric evidence from Hungary, 1986-1998,"
Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 1-22, February.
- Dean Jolliffe & Nauro F. Campos, 2004. "Does Market Liberalisation Reduce Gender Discrimination? Econometric Evidence from Hungary, 1986—1998," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2004-678, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Mark R. Rosenzweig & Junsen Zhang, 2009.
"Do Population Control Policies Induce More Human Capital Investment? Twins, Birth Weight and China's "One-Child" Policy,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Oxford University Press, vol. 76(3), pages 1149-1174.
- Mark R. Rosenzweig & Junsen Zhang, 2006. "Do Population Control Policies Induce More Human Capital Investment? Twins, Birthweight, and China's 'One Child' Policy," Working Papers 933, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Zhang, Junsen, 2006. "Do Population Control Policies Induce More Human Capital Investment? Twins, Birthweight, and China's 'One Child' Policy," IZA Discussion Papers 2082, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Dennis Tao Yang & Marjorie McElroy, 2000. "Carrots and Sticks: Fertility Effects of China's Population Policies," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 389-392, May.
- Hongbin Li & Junsen Zhang, 2009. "Testing the External Effect of Household Behavior: The Case of the Demand for Children," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 44(4).
- Gourieroux, Christian & Monfort, Alain & Renault, Eric & Trognon, Alain, 1987. "Generalised residuals," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1-2), pages 5-32.
- Tao Yang, Dennis, 1997. "China's land arrangements and rural labor mobility," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 101-115.
- Rivers, Douglas & Vuong, Quang H., 1988. "Limited information estimators and exogeneity tests for simultaneous probit models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 347-366, November.
- Yao, Yang, 1999. "Rural industry and labor market integration in eastern China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 463-496, August.
- Terza, Joseph V. & Basu, Anirban & Rathouz, Paul J., 2008. "Two-stage residual inclusion estimation: Addressing endogeneity in health econometric modeling," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 531-543, May.
- Scotese, Carol & Wang, Ping, 1995. "Can Government Enforcement Permanently Alter Fertility? The Case of China," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 33(4), pages 552-70, October.
- Campos, Nauro F & Jolliffe, Dean, 2004. "Does Market Liberalization Reduce Gender Discrimination? Econometric Evidence from Hungary, 1986-98," CEPR Discussion Papers 4350, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Avraham Ebenstein, 2010. "The "Missing Girls" of China and the Unintended Consequences of the One Child Policy," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 45(1).
- Orley Ashenfelter & Junsen Zhang, 2004. "Introduction," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(3), pages 151-153, October.
- Hongbin Li & Junsen Zhang, 2007. "Do High Birth Rates Hamper Economic Growth?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 89(1), pages 110-117, February.
- Killingsworth, Mark R. & Heckman, James J., 1987. "Female labor supply: A survey," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 2, pages 103-204 Elsevier.
- Adriaan S. Kalwij, 2000. "The effects of female employment status on the presence and number of children," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 221-239.
- Fang, Hai & Eggleston, Karen N. & Rizzo, John A. & Zeckhauser, Richard J., 2012. "Jobs and Kids: Female Employment and Fertility in China," Working Paper Series rwp12-054, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.