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The effects of female employment status on the presence and number of children

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  • Adriaan S. Kalwij

    ()
    (Institute of Economics and Statistics, University of Oxford, St. Cross Building, Manor Road, Oxford OX1 3UL, United Kingdom)

Abstract

The main concern of this paper is to analyze the effects of female employment status on the presence and number of children in households in the Netherlands. For this purpose a hurdle count data model is formulated and estimated by the generalized method of moments. The hurdle takes explicitly into account the interrelationship between female employment status and timing of first birth. The number of children, once children are present in the household, is modeled conditional on female employment status. The empirical results show that female employment status is a major determinant of the presence and number of children in households: employed women schedule children later in life and have fewer children compared to nonemployed women, holding educational attainment constant. After controlling for female employment status, the educational attainment of both the woman and the man in the households are found to have relatively small effects on the presence and number of children.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Springer in its journal Journal of Population Economics.

Volume (Year): 13 (2000)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 221-239

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Handle: RePEc:spr:jopoec:v:13:y:2000:i:2:p:221-239

Note: Received: 3 November 1998/Accepted: 22 September 1999
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Keywords: Hurdle count data model; fertility; female employment;

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Cited by:
  1. Massimiliano Bratti & Alfonso Miranda, 2010. "Endogenous Treatment Effects for Count Data Models with Sample Selection or Endogenous Participation," DoQSS Working Papers 10-05, Department of Quantitative Social Science - Institute of Education, University of London, revised 10 Dec 2010.
  2. George Hondroyiannis, 2010. "Fertility Determinants and Economic Uncertainty: An Assessment Using European Panel Data," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 31(1), pages 33-50, March.
  3. Maria Gutierrez-Domenech, 2002. "The Impact of the Labour Market on the Timing of Marriage and Births in Spain," CEP Discussion Papers dp0556, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  4. Luciano Fanati & Piero Manfredi, 2003. "Population, Unemployment and Economic Growth Cycles: A Further Explanatory Perspective," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 54(2-3), pages 179-207, 05.
  5. Fang, Hai & Eggleston, Karen N. & Rizzo, John A. & Zeckhauser, Richard, 2010. "Female Employment and Fertility in Rural China," Working Paper Series rwp10-011, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
  6. Sumon K. Bhaumik & Jeffrey B. Nugent, 2002. "Does economic uncertainty have an impact on decisions to bear children? Evidence from Eastern Germany," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2002-037, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
  7. Andreia Tolciu & Ulrich Zierahn, 2010. "Women and Work: What Role Do Social Norms Play?," MAGKS Papers on Economics 201009, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung).
  8. Fanti, Luciano & Manfredi, Piero, 2009. "Neoclassical production theory and growth with unemployment: The stability issue revisited," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 126-135, June.
  9. Yukawa, Shiho, 2012. "教養娯楽価格が出産に与える影響
    [The Effect of Recreational Goods Price on Fertility]
    ," MPRA Paper 35808, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Bloemen, Hans & Kalwij, Adriaan S., 2001. "Female labor market transitions and the timing of births: a simultaneous analysis of the effects of schooling," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(5), pages 593-620, December.
  11. Pablo Brañas-Garza & Shoshana Neuman, 2007. "Parental religiosity and daughters’ fertility: the case of Catholics in southern Europe," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 305-327, September.
  12. Julia Bredtmann & Jochen Kluve & Sandra Schaffner, 2009. "Women's Fertility and Employment Decisions under Two Political Systems - Comparing East and West Germany before Reunification," Ruhr Economic Papers 0149, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
  13. repec:ese:iserwp:2006-06 is not listed on IDEAS
  14. Andrew Morrison & Shwetlena Sabarwal, 2008. "The Economic Participation of Adolescent Girls and Young Women : Why Does It Matter?," World Bank Other Operational Studies 11131, The World Bank.

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