Selling company shares to reluctant employees : France Télécom's experience
AbstractIn 1997, France Télécom, the French telecommunications firm, went through a partial privatization or Opening of Shareholding. As part of this process, the government offered current and prior France Télécom employees the opportunity to buy portfolios of shares with various combinations of discounts, required holding periods, and levels of downside protection. We adapt a neoclassical model of investment decision-making that takes into account firm-specific human capital and holding period restrictions to predict how employees might respond to the share offers. Using a new database that tracks over 200,000 eligible participants, we analyze the employees' characteristics and their decisions regarding (a) whether to participate; (b) how much to invest; and (c) what form of stock alternatives they selected.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by HEC Paris in its series Les Cahiers de Recherche with number 703.
Length: 55 pages
Date of creation: 24 Apr 2000
Date of revision:
Privatization; human capital; France Telecom; employee ownership; portfolio choice;
Other versions of this item:
- Degeorge, Francois & Jenter, Dirk & Moel, Alberto & Tufano, Peter, 2004. "Selling company shares to reluctant employees: France Telecom's experience," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 169-202, January.
- Francois Degeorge & Dirk Jenter & Alberto Moel & Peter Tufano, 2000. "Selling Company Shares to Reluctant Employees: France Telecom's Experience," NBER Working Papers 7683, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Degeorge, François & Jenter, Dirk & Moel, Alberto & Tufano, Peter, 2000. "Selling Company Shares to Reluctant Employees: France Télécom's Experience," CEPR Discussion Papers 2483, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- E69 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Other
- G18 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Government Policy and Regulation
- G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
- L32 - Industrial Organization - - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise - - - Public Enterprises; Public-Private Enterprises
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Thaler, Richard H, 1990. "Saving, Fungibility, and Mental Accounts," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 4(1), pages 193-205, Winter.
- Laibson, David & Zeckhauser, Richard, 1998. "Amos Tversky and the Ascent of Behavioral Economics," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 16(1), pages 7-47, April.
- Haliassos, Michael & Bertaut, Carol C, 1995. "Why Do So Few Hold Stocks?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(432), pages 1110-29, September.
- Jones, Derek C & Kato, Takao, 1995. "The Productivity Effects of Employee Stock-Ownership Plans and Bonuses: Evidence from Japanese Panel Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 391-414, June.
- Williams, Nicolas, 1991. "Reexamining the Wage, Tenure and Experience Relationship," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 73(3), pages 512-17, August.
- Blume, Marshall E & Friend, Irwin, 1975. "The Asset Structure of Individual Portfolios and Some Implications for Utility Functions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 30(2), pages 585-603, May.
- Luis M. Viceira, 2001.
"Optimal Portfolio Choice for Long-Horizon Investors with Nontradable Labor Income,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 56(2), pages 433-470, 04.
- Luis M. Viceira, 1999. "Optimal Portfolio Choice for Long-Horizon Investors with Nontradable Labor Income," NBER Working Papers 7409, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lee, Lung-Fei, 1983. "Generalized Econometric Models with Selectivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(2), pages 507-12, March.
- Deaton, A., 1989.
"Saving And Liquidity Constraints,"
153, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Public and International Affairs.
- Merton, Robert C., 1971.
"Optimum consumption and portfolio rules in a continuous-time model,"
Journal of Economic Theory,
Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 373-413, December.
- R. C. Merton, 1970. "Optimum Consumption and Portfolio Rules in a Continuous-time Model," Working papers 58, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Shefrin, Hersh & Statman, Meir, 1994. "Behavioral Capital Asset Pricing Theory," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 29(03), pages 323-349, September.
- Hallock, Kevin F, 1998. "Layoffs, Top Executive Pay, and Firm Performance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(4), pages 711-23, September.
- Carol C. Bertaut & Michael Haliassos, 1996.
"Precautionary portfolio behavior from a life-cycle perspective,"
International Finance Discussion Papers
542, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Bertaut, Carol C. & Haliassos, Michael, 1997. "Precautionary portfolio behavior from a life-cycle perspective," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 21(8-9), pages 1511-1542, June.
- Carol C. Bertaut & Michael Haliassos, 1996. "Precautionary Portfolio Behavior from a Life-Cycle Perspective," Finance 9604001, EconWPA.
- James J. Heckman, 1976. "The Common Structure of Statistical Models of Truncation, Sample Selection and Limited Dependent Variables and a Simple Estimator for Such Models," NBER Chapters, in: Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, Volume 5, number 4, pages 475-492 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Shiller, Robert J., 1999.
"Human behavior and the efficiency of the financial system,"
Handbook of Macroeconomics,
in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 20, pages 1305-1340
- Robert J. Shiller, 1998. "Human Behavior and the Efficiency of the Financial System," NBER Working Papers 6375, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Robert J. Shiller, 1998. "Human Behavior and the Efficiency of the Financial System," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1172, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- H. M. Shefrin & Richard Thaler, 1977.
"An Economic Theory of Self-Control,"
NBER Working Papers
0208, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Samuelson, Paul A, 1969. "Lifetime Portfolio Selection by Dynamic Stochastic Programming," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 51(3), pages 239-46, August.
- Martin Browning & Annamaria Lusardi, 1995.
"Household Saving: Micro Theories and Micro Facts,"
Department of Economics Working Papers
1995-02, McMaster University.
- Maki, Atsushi & Nishiyama, Shigeru, 1996. "An analysis of under-reporting for micro-data sets: The misreporting or double-hurdle model," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 211-220, September.
- Hersh Shefrin & Meir Statman, 1993. "Behavioral Aspects of the Design and Marketing of Financial Products," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 22(2), Summer.
- Merton, Robert C, 1969. "Lifetime Portfolio Selection under Uncertainty: The Continuous-Time Case," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 51(3), pages 247-57, August.
- Shefrin, Hersh M. & Statman, Meir, 1984. "Explaining investor preference for cash dividends," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 253-282, June.
- Brad M. Barber & Terrance Odean, 2001. "Boys Will Be Boys: Gender, Overconfidence, And Common Stock Investment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 116(1), pages 261-292, February.
- Daniel Szpiro, 1995. "La diffusion des produits financiers auprès des ménages en France," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 281(1), pages 41-68.
- Schelling, Thomas C, 1984. "Self-Command in Practice, in Policy, and in a Theory of Rational Choice," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(2), pages 1-11, May.
- Guiso, Luigi & Jappelli, Tullio & Terlizzese, Daniele, 1996.
"Income Risk, Borrowing Constraints, and Portfolio Choice,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 86(1), pages 158-72, March.
- Guiso, Luigi & Jappelli, Tullio & Terlizzese, Daniele, 1994. "Income Risk, Borrowing Constraints and Portfolio Choice," CEPR Discussion Papers 888, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Mankiw, N. Gregory & Zeldes, Stephen P., 1991.
"The consumption of stockholders and nonstockholders,"
Journal of Financial Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 97-112, March.
- N. Gregory Mankiw & Stephen P. Zeldes, 1991. "The Consumption of Stockholders and Non-Stockholders," NBER Working Papers 3402, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mankiw, N.G. & Zeldes, S.P., 1990. "The Consumption Of Stockholders And Non-Stockholders," Weiss Center Working Papers 23-90, Wharton School - Weiss Center for International Financial Research.
- Shefrin, Hersh M & Thaler, Richard H, 1988. "The Behavioral Life-Cycle Hypothesis," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 26(4), pages 609-43, October.
- Zvi Bodie & Robert C. Merton & William F. Samuelson, 1992.
"Labor Supply Flexibility and Portfolio Choice in a Life-Cycle Model,"
NBER Working Papers
3954, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bodie, Zvi & Merton, Robert C. & Samuelson, William F., 1992. "Labor supply flexibility and portfolio choice in a life cycle model," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 16(3-4), pages 427-449.
- Leland, Hayne E, 1980.
" Who Should Buy Portfolio Insurance?,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 35(2), pages 581-94, May.
- Robert H. Topel, 1990.
"Specific Capital, Mobility, and Wages: Wages Rise with Job Seniority,"
NBER Working Papers
3294, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Topel, Robert H, 1991. "Specific Capital, Mobility, and Wages: Wages Rise with Job Seniority," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(1), pages 145-76, February.
- Myron S. Scholes & Mark A. Wolfson, 1989. "Employee Stock Ownership Plans and Corporate Restructuring: Myths and Realities," NBER Working Papers 3094, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Alexander Klos & Martin Weber, 2006. "Portfolio Choice in the Presence of Non-Tradable Income: An Experimental Analysis," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 7, pages 427-448, November.
- Gomes, Francisco J & Michaelides, Alexander, 2005.
"Optimal Life-Cycle Asset Allocation: Understanding the Empirical Evidence,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
4853, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Francisco Gomes & Alexander Michaelides, 2005. "Optimal Life-Cycle Asset Allocation: Understanding the Empirical Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(2), pages 869-904, 04.
- Michaelides, Alexander & Gomes, Francisco J., 2005. "Optimal life cycle asset allocation : understanding the empirical evidence," Open Access publications from London School of Economics and Political Science http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/, London School of Economics and Political Science.
- Philippe Desbrières, 2002. "Les actionnaires salariés," Working Papers FARGO 1021101, Université de Bourgogne - Leg (laboratoire d'économie et de gestion)/Fargo (Research center in Finance,organizational ARchitecture and GOvernance).
- Thomas Rapp & Nicolas Aubert, 2011. "Bank Employee Incentives and Stock Purchase Plans Participation," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 40(3), pages 185-203, December.
- Nicolas Aubert, 2006. "Understanding Employer's Stock Holdings in the French Company Savings Plans Using the Literature on the American 401(k) plans," Post-Print halshs-00188518, HAL.
- Sautner, Zacharias & Weber, Martin, 2005. "Stock Options and Employee Behavior," Sonderforschungsbereich 504 Publications 05-26, Sonderforschungsbereich 504, Universität Mannheim & Sonderforschungsbereich 504, University of Mannheim.
- Dong Lee, 2009. "How Do Employees View Their Underwater Stock Options?: Evidence from the Stock Option Exchange Program," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 273-296, June.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sandra Dupouy).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.