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Gender Segregation in Employment Contracts

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  • Barbara Petrongolo

Abstract

This paper presents evidence on gender segregation in employment contracts in 15 EUcountries, using micro data from the ECHPS. Women are over-represented in part-time jobsin all countries considered, but while in northern Europe such allocation roughly reflectswomen¿s preferences and their need to combine work with child care, in southern Europepart-time jobs are often involuntary and provide significantly lower job satisfaction than fulltimeones. Women are also over-represented in fixed-term contracts in southern Europe, andagain this job allocation cannot be explained by preferences or productivity differentialsbetween the two genders. There is thus a largely unexplained residual in the gender joballocation, which may be consistent with some degree of discrimination in a few of the labourmarkets considered, especially in southern Europe.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Centre for Economic Performance, LSE in its series CEP Discussion Papers with number dp0637.

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Date of creation: May 2004
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Handle: RePEc:cep:cepdps:dp0637

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Web page: http://cep.lse.ac.uk/_new/publications/series.asp?prog=CEP

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Keywords: Gender gap; employment; taxation; public policy;

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References

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  1. Farber, Henry S, 1999. "Alternative and Part-Time Employment Arrangements as a Response to Job Loss," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 17(4), pages S142-69, October.
  2. Duncan Thomas, 1990. "Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(4), pages 635-664.
  3. Dolado, Juan José & Felgueroso, Florentino & Jimeno, Juan F., 2002. "Recent Trends in Occupational Segregation by Gender: A Look Across the Atlantic," IZA Discussion Papers 524, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. George A. Akerlof & Rachel E. Kranton, 2000. "Economics And Identity," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 115(3), pages 715-753, August.
  5. Arulampalam, Wiji & Booth, Alison L. & Bryan, Mark L., 2003. "Training in Europe," IZA Discussion Papers 933, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Alison L. Booth & Marco Francesconi & Jeff Frank, 2002. "Temporary Jobs: Stepping Stones or Dead Ends?," LABORatorio R. Revelli Working Papers Series 8, LABORatorio R. Revelli, Centre for Employment Studies.
  7. Ghazala Azmat & Maia Güell & Alan Manning, 2006. "Gender Gaps in Unemployment Rates in OECD Countries," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 24(1), pages 1-38, January.
  8. Joseph G. Altonji & Rebecca M. Blank, . "Race and Gender in the Labor Market," IPR working papers 98-18, Institute for Policy Resarch at Northwestern University.
  9. Maia Güell & Barbara Petrongolo, 2003. "How Binding are Legal Limits? Transitions from Termporary to Permanent Work in Spain," Working Papers 75, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
  10. Henry S. Farber, 1999. "Alternative and Part-Time Employment Arrangements as a Response to Job Loss," NBER Working Papers 7002, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. O Blanchard & A Landier, 2002. "The Perverse Effects of Partial Labour Market Reform: fixed--Term Contracts in France," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(480), pages F214-F244, June.
  12. Juan J Dolado & Carlos Garcia--Serrano & Juan F. Jimeno, 2002. "Drawing Lessons From The Boom Of Temporary Jobs In Spain," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(721), pages F270-F295, June.
  13. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2003. "Understanding International Differences in the Gender Pay Gap," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(1), pages 106-144, January.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Coral del Río & Olga Alonso-Villar, 2008. "Occupational and industrial segregation of female and male workers in Spain: An alternative approach," Working Papers 84, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
  2. Salvatori, Andrea, 2010. "Labour contract regulations and workers' wellbeing: International longitudinal evidence," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 667-678, August.
  3. Booth, Alison L. & Coles, Melvyn, 2007. "A microfoundation for increasing returns in human capital accumulation and the under-participation trap," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(7), pages 1661-1681, October.
  4. Ana Carolina Ortega Masagué, 2006. "El diferencial entre las tasas de desempleo de hombres y mujeres en Argentina," Working Papers 2006-08, FEDEA.
  5. Kathrin Leuze & Allessandra Rusconi, 2009. "Should I Stay or Should I Go?: Gender Differences in Professional Employment," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 187, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  6. Asadullah, Niaz & Fernández, Rosa M., 2008. "Work-Life Balance Practices and the Gender Gap in Job Satisfaction in the UK: Evidence from Matched Employer-Employee Data," IZA Discussion Papers 3582, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Rusconi, Alessandra & Solga, Heike, 2008. "A systematic reflection upon dual career couples," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Skill Formation and Labor Markets SP I 2008-505, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  8. Alena Bicakova, 2012. "Gender Unemployment Gaps in the EU: Blame the Family," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp475, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economic Institute, Prague.
  9. Claudia Olivetti, 2008. "Gender and the Labour Market: An International Perspective and the Case of Italy," Rivista di Politica Economica, SIPI Spa, vol. 98(3), pages 3-32, May-June.
  10. Leuze, Kathrin & Rusconi, Alessandra, 2009. "Should I stay or should I go? Gender differences in professional employment," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Skill Formation and Labor Markets SP I 2009-501, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  11. Carmen Aina & Fernanda Mazzotta & Lavinia Parisi, 2010. "Do Flexible Employment Contracts Change Household Income Differences in Italy?," Working Papers 129, SEMEQ Department - Faculty of Economics - University of Eastern Piedmont.
  12. Olga Alonso Villar & Coral del Río, 2010. "Segregation of female and male workers in Spain: occupations and industries," Hacienda Pública Española, IEF, vol. 194(3), pages 91-121, June.
  13. Crespo, Nuno & Simoes, Nadia & Moreira, Sandrina B., 2013. "Gender Differences in Occupational Mobility – Evidence from Portugal," MPRA Paper 49195, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  14. Wim Van Lancker, 2011. "It’s all about the money? Temporary employment, gender, poverty and the role of regulations from a broad European perspective," Working Papers 1102, Herman Deleeck Centre for Social Policy, University of Antwerp.
  15. Carlos Gradín & Olga Cantó & Coral del Río, 2006. "Poverty and Women’s Labor Market Activity: the Role of Gender Wage Discrimination in the EU," Working Papers 40, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
  16. Jeroen Horemans & Ive Marx, 2013. "In-work poverty in times of crisis: do part-timers fare worse?," ImPRovE Working Papers 13/14, Herman Deleeck Centre for Social Policy, University of Antwerp.
  17. Coral del Río & Carlos Gradín & Olga Cantó, 2006. "Pobreza y discriminación salarial por razón de género en España," Working Papers 0606, Universidade de Vigo, Departamento de Economía Aplicada.
  18. Cipollone, Angela & Patacchini, Eleonora & Vallanti, Giovanna, 2012. "Women’s Labour Market Performance in Europe: Trends and Shaping Factors," CEPS Papers 7329, Centre for European Policy Studies.
  19. Jérôme De Henau & Danièle Meulders & Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai, 2006. "The comparative effectiveness of public policies to fight motherhood-induced employment penalties and decreasing fertility in the former eu-15," DULBEA Working Papers 06-02rs, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  20. Cipollone, Angela & Patacchini, Eleonora & Vallanti, Giovanna, 2013. "Women Labor Market Participation in Europe: Novel Evidence on Trends and Shaping Factors," IZA Discussion Papers 7710, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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