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Nonpoint Source Pollution Taxes and Excessive Tax Burden

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  • Karp, Larry

Abstract

If a regulator is unable to measure firms’ individual emissions, an ambient tax can be used to achieve the socially desired level of pollution. With this tax, each firm pays a unit tax on aggregate emissions. In order for the tax to be effective,firms must recognize that their decisions affect aggregate emissions. When firms behave strategically with respect to the tax-setting regulator, under plausible circumstances their tax burden is lower under an ambient tax, relative to the tax which charges firms on the basis of individual emissions. Firms may prefer the case where the regulator is unable to observe individual firm emissions, even if this asymmetric information causes the regulator to tax each …rm on the basis of aggregate emissions.

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Paper provided by Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley in its series Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series with number qt4z62b52k.

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Date of creation: 01 Mar 1998
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Handle: RePEc:cdl:agrebk:qt4z62b52k

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Keywords: Ambient tax; nonpoint source pollution; moral hazard; asymmetric information;

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References

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  1. Joseph A. Herriges & Ramu Govindasamy & Jason F. Shogren, 1992. "Budget Balancing Incentive Mechanisms," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 92-wp100, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
  2. James Shortle & David Abler & Richard Horan, 1998. "Research Issues in Nonpoint Pollution Control," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 11(3), pages 571-585, April.
  3. Hyde, Charles E & Rausser, Gordon C & Simon, Leo K, 2000. "Regulating Multiple Polluters: Deterrence and Liability Allocation," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 41(2), pages 495-521, May.
  4. Novshek, William & Sonnenschein, Hugo., 1983. "General Equilibrium with Free Entry: A Synthetic Approach to the Theory of Perfect Competition," Working Papers 497, California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences.
  5. Karp, Larry S., 1992. "The endogenous stability of economic systems: The case of many agents," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 117-138, January.
  6. Y. Farzin & Jonathan Kaplan, 2004. "Nonpoint Source Pollution Control under Incomplete and Costly Information," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 28(4), pages 489-506, August.
  7. Millock Katrin & Salanié François, 2005. "Nonpoint Source Pollution When Polluters Might Cooperate," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 5(1), pages 1-27, July.
  8. Millock, Katrin & Sunding, David & Zilberman, David, 2002. "Regulating Pollution with Endogenous Monitoring," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 221-241, September.
  9. Garvie, Devon & Keeler, Andrew, 1994. "Incomplete enforcement with endogenous regulatory choice," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 141-162, September.
  10. Cabe, Richard & Herriges, Joseph A., 1992. "The Regulation of Non-Point Sources of Pollution Under Imperfect and Asymmetric Information," Staff General Research Papers 10787, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  11. Karp Larry & Livernois John, 1994. "Using Automatic Tax Changes to Control Pollution Emissions," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 38-48, July.
  12. Lars Hansen, 1998. "A Damage Based Tax Mechanism for Regulation of Non-Point Emissions," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 12(1), pages 99-112, July.
  13. Cabe, Richard & Herriges, Joseph A., 1992. "The regulation of non-point-source pollution under imperfect and asymmetric information," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 134-146, March.
  14. Xepapadeas, A. P., 1992. "Environmental policy design and dynamic nonpoint-source pollution," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 22-39, July.
  15. Tsutsui, Shunichi & Mino, Kazuo, 1990. "Nonlinear strategies in dynamic duopolistic competition with sticky prices," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 136-161, October.
  16. Horan, Richard D. & Shortle, James S. & Abler, David G., 1998. "Ambient Taxes When Polluters Have Multiple Choices," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 186-199, September.
  17. Segerson, Kathleen, 1988. "Uncertainty and incentives for nonpoint pollution control," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 87-98, March.
  18. Xepapadeas, A. P., 1991. "Environmental policy under imperfect information: Incentives and moral hazard," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 113-126, March.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Tsur, Yacov & de Gorter, Harry, 2012. "Dynamic regulation of nonpoint source pollution when the number of emitters is large," Discussion Papers 122124, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Agricultural Economics and Management.
  2. Hansen, Lars Garn & Romstad, Eirik, 2007. "Non-point source regulation -- A self-reporting mechanism," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(3-4), pages 529-537, May.
  3. Berliant, Marcus & Peng, Shin-Kun & Wang, Ping, 2012. "Taxing pollution: agglomeration and welfare consequences," MPRA Paper 40250, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. James Shortle & Richard D. Horan, 2013. "Policy Instruments for Water Quality Protection," Annual Review of Resource Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 5(1), pages 111-138, June.
  5. Vossler, Christian A. & Suter, Jordan F. & Poe, Gregory L., 2013. "Experimental evidence on dynamic pollution tax policies," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 101-115.
  6. Jordan F. Suter & Kathleen Segerson & Christian A. Vossler & Gregory L. Poe, 2010. "Voluntary-Threat Approaches to Reduce Ambient Water Pollution," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 92(4), pages 1195-1213.
  7. Suter, Jordan F. & Vossler, Christian A. & Poe, Gregory L., 2009. "Ambient-based pollution mechanisms: A comparison of homogeneous and heterogeneous groups of emitters," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(6), pages 1883-1892, April.
  8. Anastasios Xepapadeas, 2011. "The Economics of Non-Point-Source Pollution," Annual Review of Resource Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 3(1), pages 355-373, October.
  9. Stergios Athanassoglou & Glenn Sheriff & Tobias Siegfried & Woonghee Tim Huh, 2011. "Optimal Mechanisms for Heterogeneous Multi-cell Aquifers," Working Papers 2011.28, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  10. Helene Ollivier, 2012. "Growth, deforestation and the efficiency of the REDD mechanism," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-00750718, HAL.
  11. Athanassoglou, Stergios, 2010. "Dynamic nonpoint-source pollution control policy: Ambient transfers and uncertainty," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(12), pages 2494-2509, December.
  12. Krawczyk, Jacek B., 2005. "Coupled constraint Nash equilibria in environmental games," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 157-181, June.
  13. Suter, Jordan F. & Vossler, Christian A. & Poe, Gregory L. & Schulze, William D. & Segerson, Kathleen, 2006. "An Experimental Exploration of a Voluntary Mechanism to Reduce Nonpoint Source Water Pollution with a Background Threat of Regulation," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21416, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  14. Cason, Timothy N. & Gangadharan, Lata, 2013. "Empowering neighbors versus imposing regulations: An experimental analysis of pollution reduction schemes," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 469-484.

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