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Is Wal-Mart Good for Competition? Evidence from Milk Prices

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  • Cleary, Rebecca
  • Lopez, Rigoberto

Abstract

This article examines the impact of Wal-Mart Supercenters’ entry on incumbents’ pricing behavior and demand. Using a structural model and milk data from the Dallas/Fort Worth supermarket chains, empirical results show that an expansion of Supercenters caused incumbents to price milk significantly more competitively, dropping on average 22.5% between 1996 and 2002, in spite of declines in their milk demand. Furthermore, consumer gains exceeded incumbent losses, lending further support to the notion that Wal-Mart is good for competition and consumers.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Connecticut, Food Marketing Policy Center in its series Research Reports with number 149207.

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Date of creation: Oct 2007
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Handle: RePEc:ags:uconnr:149207

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Keywords: Wal-Mart; competition; conduct; entry; supermarkets; food retailing; Marketing; L10; L19; L66; L59;

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  1. Ronald Cotterill & William Putsis, 2000. "Market Share and Price Setting Behavior for Private Labels and National Brands," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 17-39, August.
  2. David Neumark & Junfu Zhang & Stephen Ciccarella, 2006. "The Effects of Wal-Mart on Local Labor Markets," Working Papers 060711, University of California-Irvine, Department of Economics.
  3. Chidmi, Benaissa & Lopez, Rigoberto A. & Cotterill, Ronald W., 2004. "Retail Oligopoly Power, Dairy Compact, And Boston Milk Prices," Food Marketing Policy Center Research Reports 083, University of Connecticut, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Charles J. Zwick Center for Food and Resource Policy.
  4. Emek Basker & Michael Noel, 2009. "The Evolving Food Chain: Competitive Effects of Wal-Mart's Entry into the Supermarket Industry," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(4), pages 977-1009, December.
  5. Georgeanne M. Artz & Kenneth E. Stone, 2006. "Analyzing the Impact of Wal-Mart Supercenters on Local Food Store Sales," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 88(5), pages 1296-1303.
  6. Chidmi, Benaissa, 2007. "Supermarkets Price Competition in Dallas Fort Worth Fluid Milk Market," 2007 Annual Meeting, February 4-7, 2007, Mobile, Alabama 34961, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.
  7. Appelbaum, Elie, 1982. "The estimation of the degree of oligopoly power," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2-3), pages 287-299, August.
  8. Cotterill, Ronald W. & Putsis, William P., Jr. & Dhar, Ravi, 2000. "Market Share and Price Setting Behavior For Private Labels and National Brands," Research Reports 25209, University of Connecticut, Food Marketing Policy Center.
  9. Vishal P. Singh & Karsten T. Hansen & Robert C. Blattberg, 2006. "Market Entry and Consumer Behavior: An Investigation of a Wal-Mart Supercenter," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 25(5), pages 457-476, September.
  10. Ronald W. Cotterill & William P. Putsis Jr. & Ravi Dhar, 2000. "Market Share and Price Setting Behavior For Private Labels and National Brands," Food Marketing Policy Center Research Reports 051, University of Connecticut, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Charles J. Zwick Center for Food and Resource Policy.
  11. Rigoberto Lopez & Azzeddine Azzam & Carmen Lirón-España, 2002. "Market Power and/or Efficiency: A Structural Approach," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 115-126, March.
  12. Gould, Brian W., 1996. "Factors Affecting U.S. Demand For Reduced-Fat Fluid Milk," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 21(01), July.
  13. Capps, Oral, Jr. & Griffin, James M., 1998. "Effect Of A Mass Merchandiser On Traditional Food Retailers," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 29(1), February.
  14. Jean Kinsey & Ben Senauer, 1996. "Consumer Trends and Changing Food Retailing Formats," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 78(5), pages 1187-1191.
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