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SNAP Efficacy and Food Access – A Nationwide Spatial Analysis

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  • Bonanno, Alessandro
  • Ghosh, Gaurav S.
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    Abstract

    As the public expenditure for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) - formerly the Food Stamp Program (FSP) - increases, improving the effectiveness of the policy becomes pivotal to limit further surges in public spending. Along with social stigma, transaction costs, associated in part to the accessibility and proximity to food outlets, are the main deterrent to program participation. This study presents an empirical assessment of the relationship between food access and FSP participation among eligible population. The analysis uses county-level data for the continental U.S., distinguished by different stores formats (grocery stores, convenience stores and a non-traditional, low-priced alternative, Wal-Mart Supercenters) accounting for the endogeneity of their location decision. To estimate the parameter of the model we use a relatively novel estimator: the spatial generalized two-stage least square (GS2SLS) estimator with heteroskedastic autoregressive disturbances of order (1,1) or SARAR(1,1), developed by Kelejian and Prucha (2010). Empirical results show that, among eligible individuals, the presence of small convenience stores, large grocery stores, and Walmart supercenters entice participation in the food stamp program. In sum, increasing the number of stores for which commuting by car is not strictly necessary (convenience stores) or the proximity to stores with wider assortment of low-priced items may act as catalysts to ability to the policy ability to reach the underprivileged.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by European Association of Agricultural Economists & Agricultural and Applied Economics Association in its series 115th Joint EAAE/AAEA Seminar, September 15-17, 2010, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany with number 116437.

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    Date of creation: 2010
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    Handle: RePEc:ags:eaa115:116437

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    Related research

    Keywords: Food Stamps; Food Access; Spatial modelling; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; Q18; L81; C21;

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    1. Richard J. Volpe & Nathalie Lavoie, 2008. "The Effect of Wal-Mart Supercenters on Grocery Prices in New England," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 30(1), pages 4-26.
    2. Kelejian, Harry H. & Prucha, Ingmar R., 2004. "Estimation of simultaneous systems of spatially interrelated cross sectional equations," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 118(1-2), pages 27-50.
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    6. Kelejian, Harry H. & Prucha, Ingmar R., 2010. "Specification and estimation of spatial autoregressive models with autoregressive and heteroskedastic disturbances," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 157(1), pages 53-67, July.
    7. Kelejian, Harry H. & Prucha, Ingmar R., 2002. "2SLS and OLS in a spatial autoregressive model with equal spatial weights," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 691-707, November.
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