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The emigration of immigrants, return vs onward migration: evidence from Sweden

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  • Lena Nekby

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Abstract

Using data on registered emigration from Sweden from 1991-2000, this study analyzes emigration propensities for natives and immigrants delineating among immigrant emigrants between return and onward migration. Return migration is defined as migration back to source countries and onward migration as emigration to third country destinations. Onward migration constitutes an increasing proportion of emigration from Sweden and is the more common form of emigration among immigrants from Africa and Asia. Results indicate that emigrants in general are positively selected in terms of upper education, a result driven by the positive association between upper education and emigration among onward migrants. Predicted age-income profiles show that although emigrants in general have higher adjusted mean income levels, up to the age of 35-40, than non-emigrants, onward migrants have lower predicted income levels across the age distribution due to this groups relatively low employment levels in Sweden.

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s00148-006-0080-0
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Springer in its journal Journal of Population Economics.

Volume (Year): 19 (2006)
Issue (Month): 2 (June)
Pages: 197-226

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Handle: RePEc:spr:jopoec:v:19:y:2006:i:2:p:197-226

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Related research

Keywords: Emigration; Return migration; Onward migration; J61; J15;

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References

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  1. DaVanzo, Julie, 1983. "Repeat Migration in the United States: Who Moves Back and Who Moves On?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(4), pages 552-59, November.
  2. Galor, Oded & Stark, Oded, 1991. "The probability of return migration, migrants' work effort, and migrants' performance," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 399-405, April.
  3. Christian Dustmann, 1996. "An Economic Analysis of Return Migration," Discussion Papers 96-02 ISSN 1350-6722, University College London, Department of Economics.
  4. Dustmann, Christian, 2001. "Return Migration, Wage Differentials, and the Optimal Migration Duration," IZA Discussion Papers 264, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Amelie Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2003. "The Dynamics of Repeat Migration: A Markov Chain Analysis," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 378, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  6. Bevelander, Pieter, 1999. "Declining Employment Assimilation of Immigrants in Sweden: Observed or Unobserved Characteristics?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2132, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Pål Longva & Oddbjørn Raaum, 2003. "Earnings assimilation of immigrants in Norway – A reappraisal," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 16(1), pages 177-193, 02.
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  10. Rosholm, Michael & Scott, Kirk & Husted, Leif, 2000. "The Times They Are A-Changin' Organizational Change and Immigrant Employment Opportunities in Scandinavia," CLS Working Papers 00-7, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research.
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  13. Pieter Bevelander & Helena Skyt Nielsen, 2001. "Declining employment success of immigrant males in Sweden: Observed or unobserved characteristics?," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 14(3), pages 455-471.
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  16. Borjas, George J., 1999. "The economic analysis of immigration," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 28, pages 1697-1760 Elsevier.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Böhlmark, Anders, 2008. "Age at immigration and school performance: A siblings analysis using swedish register data," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 1366-1387, December.
  2. Christian Dustmann & Albrecht Glitz, 2011. "Migration and Education," Norface Discussion Paper Series 2011011, Norface Research Programme on Migration, Department of Economics, University College London.
  3. Kuhlenkasper, Torben & Steinhardt, Max Friedrich, 2012. "Who leaves and when? Selective outmigration of immigrants from Germany," HWWI Research Papers 128, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI).
  4. Govert Bijwaard, 2010. "Immigrant migration dynamics model for The Netherlands," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 23(4), pages 1213-1247, September.
  5. Bijwaard, Govert E. & Wahba, Jackline, 2014. "Do high-income or low-income immigrants leave faster?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 54-68.
  6. Govert E. Bijwaard, 2008. "Modeling Migration Dynamics of Immigrants," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 08-070/4, Tinbergen Institute.
  7. Elisa Barbiano di Belgiojoso & Livia Elisa Ortensi, 2013. "Should I stay or should I go? The case of Italy," RIEDS - Rivista Italiana di Economia, Demografia e Statistica - Italian Review of Economics, Demography and Statistics, SIEDS Societa' Italiana di Economia Demografia e Statistica, vol. 0(3-4), pages 31-38, July-Dece.
  8. Constant, Amelie F. & Nottmeyer, Olga & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2012. "The Economics of Circular Migration," IZA Discussion Papers 6940, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Martí Sempere, Mónica & Ródenas Calatayud, Carmen, 2012. "Re-migration in Spain: an approach to its determinants," Investigaciones Regionales, Asociación Española de Ciencia Regional, issue 22, pages 105-128.
  10. Renata Ivanova & Byeongju Jeong, 2011. "Why Don't Migrants with Secondary Education Return?," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp449, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economic Institute, Prague.
  11. Bijwaard, Govert E. & Wahba, Jackline, 2013. "Do high-income or low-income immigrants leave faster?," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 1312, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
  12. Marcin Holda & Katarzyna Saczuk & Pawel Strzelecki & Robert Wyszynski, 2011. "Settlers and Guests - Determinants of the Plans of Return Migration from UK and Ireland to Poland in the Period 2007-2009," National Bank of Poland Working Papers 84, National Bank of Poland, Economic Institute.
  13. repec:dgr:uvatin:2008070 is not listed on IDEAS
  14. Ça?lar Özden & Maurice Schiff, 2007. "International Migration, Economic Development and Policy," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6766, October.
  15. Kristi Anniste & Tiit Tammaru, 2014. "Ethnic differences in integration levels and return migration intentions," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 30(13), pages 377-412, February.
  16. Christian Dustmann, 2014. "Selective Outmigration and the Estimation of Immigrants Earnings Profiles," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1402, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.

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