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Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs in Germany: Characteristics and Earning s Differentials

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  • Joern H. Block
  • Marcus Wagner

Abstract

In this paper we discuss necessity and opportunity entrepreneurship. We use panel data to analyze how these two types of entrepreneurs differ in general, and in their ability to discover and exploit entrepreneurial opportunities. We find that the opportunities exploited by opportunity entrepreneurs are generally more profitable than are those exploited by necessity entrepreneurs. We also find that the determinants of success differ to a strong degree. Standard wage equations seem to work better for opportunity than for necessity entrepreneurs. Our findings indicate a need to distinguish between the two groups in entrepreneurship theory and practice.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by LMU Munich School of Management in its journal Schmalenbach Business Review.

Volume (Year): 62 (2010)
Issue (Month): 2 (April)
Pages: 154-174

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Handle: RePEc:sbr:abstra:v:62:y:2010:i:2:p:154-174

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Keywords: Earnings Equation; Necessity Entrepreneurship; Opportunity Discovery; Opportunity Entrepreneurship; Opportunity Exploitation.;

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  1. Justin van der Sluis & Mirjam van Praag & Wim Vijverberg, 2003. "Entrepreneurship Selection and Performance," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-046/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 24 Sep 2004.
  2. Pfeiffer, Friedhelm & Reize, Frank, 1998. "Business Start-ups by the Unemployed - an Econometric Analysis Based on Firm Data," ZEW Discussion Papers 98-38, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  3. Devine, T.J. & Kiefer, N.M., 1990. "The Empirical Status Of Job Search Theory," Papers 4-90-1, Pennsylvania State - Department of Economics.
  4. Zoltán Ács & Attila Varga, 2005. "Entrepreneurship, Agglomeration and Technological Change," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 323-334, 02.
  5. repec:iza:izadps:dp624 is not listed on IDEAS
  6. Bruno Frey & Matthias Benz, 2003. "Being Independent is a Great Thing: Subjective Evaluations of Self-Employment and Hierarchy," CESifo Working Paper Series 959, CESifo Group Munich.
  7. Evans, David S & Leighton, Linda S, 1989. "Some Empirical Aspects of Entrepreneurship," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(3), pages 519-35, June.
  8. Brown, Sarah & Sessions, John G, 1998. "Education, Employment Status and Earnings: A Comparative Test of the Strong Screening Hypothesis," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 45(5), pages 586-91, November.
  9. Joachim Wagner, 2005. "Nascent Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs in Germany. Evidence from the Regional Entrepreneurship Monitor (REM)," Labor and Demography 0506004, EconWPA.
  10. Parker,Simon C., 2006. "The Economics of Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521030632.
  11. van der Sluis, Justin & van Praag, Mirjam & van Witteloostuijn, Arjen, 2007. "Why Are the Returns to Education Higher for Entrepreneurs than for Employees?," IZA Discussion Papers 3058, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  12. Barton H. Hamilton, 2000. "Does Entrepreneurship Pay? An Empirical Analysis of the Returns to Self-Employment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(3), pages 604-631, June.
  13. Strauch, Rolf & von Hagen, Jürgen, 2000. "East Germany: Transition With Unification - Experiments and Experiences," CEPR Discussion Papers 2386, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  14. Reize, Frank, 2000. "Leaving unemployment for self-employment: a discrete duration analysis of determinants and stability of self-employment among former unemployed," ZEW Discussion Papers 00-26, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
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