The Current Account Dynamics in Pakistan: An Intertemporal Optimisation Perspective
AbstractThe intertemporal approach has become a basic reference in open economy macroeconomics for the theoretical understanding of the current account. Since the early 1980s there has been substantial growth in the literature using this approach to analyse the behaviour of the current account movements for different countries and time periods. The theoretical refinements in the approach have led most of the empirical studies in the literature today to apply the basic present value model of current account (PVMCA) and its extended version to examine the fluctuations in the current account balances of both developed and developing countries. Using data on Pakistan over the period 1960 to 2009, the present study finds that the basic model fails to predict the dynamics of the actual current account. However, extending the basic model to capture variations in the world real interest rate and the real exchange rate significantly improves the fit of the intertemporal model. The extended model predictions better replicate the volatility of current account data and better explain historical episodes of current account imbalance in Pakistan.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its journal The Pakistan Development Review.
Volume (Year): 50 (2011)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Current Account; Present Value Models; Consumption-based Interest Rate; Pakistan;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
- F32 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Current Account Adjustment; Short-term Capital Movements
- F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Uribe, Martin, 2002. "The price-consumption puzzle of currency pegs," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 533-569, April.
- Stelios Makrydakis, 1999. "Consumption-smoothing and the excessiveness of Greece's current account deficits," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 24(2), pages 183-209.
- Finn E. Kydland & Carlos E. J. M. Zarazaga, 2002.
"Online Appendix to Argentina's Lost Decade and the Subsequent Recovery Puzzle,"
kydland02, Review of Economic Dynamics.
- James M. Nason & John H. Rogers, 2003.
"The present-value model of the current account has been rejected: round up the usual suspects,"
International Finance Discussion Papers
760, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Nason, James M. & Rogers, John H., 2006. "The present-value model of the current account has been rejected: Round up the usual suspects," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 159-187, January.
- James M. Nason and John H. Rogers, 2001. "The Present Value Model of the Current Account Has Been Rejected: Round Up the Usual Subjects," Computing in Economics and Finance 2001 102, Society for Computational Economics.
- James M. Nason & John H. Rogers, 2003. "The present-value model of the current account has been rejected: Round up the usual suspects," Working Paper 2003-7, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
- Finn E. Kydland & Carlos E.J.M. Zarazaga, 2001.
"Argentina's lost decade,"
Center for Latin America Working Papers
0401, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
- Ghosh, Atish R, 1995. "International Capital Mobility amongst the Major Industrialised Countries: Too Little or Too Much?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(428), pages 107-28, January.
- Graham Elliott & Thomas J. Rothenberg & James H. Stock, 1992.
"Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root,"
NBER Technical Working Papers
0130, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth Rogoff, 1994.
"The Intertemporal Approach to the Current Account,"
NBER Working Papers
4893, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Maurice Obstfeld and Kenneth Rogoff., 1994. "The Intertemporal Approach to the Current Account," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C94-044, University of California at Berkeley.
- Campbell, John & Shiller, Robert, 1987.
"Cointegration and Tests of Present Value Models,"
3122490, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- John Y. Campbell & Robert J. Shiller, 1986. "Cointegration and Tests of Present Value Models," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 785, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- John Y. Campbell & Robert J. Shiller, 1986. "Cointegration and Tests of Present Value Models," NBER Working Papers 1885, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Campbell, John Y, 1987.
"Does Saving Anticipate Declining Labor Income? An Alternative Test of the Permanent Income Hypothesis,"
Econometric Society, vol. 55(6), pages 1249-73, November.
- John Y. Campbell, 1986. "Does Saving Anticipate Declining Labor Income? An Alternative Test of the Permanent Income Hypothesis," NBER Working Papers 1805, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hall, Robert E, 1978. "Stochastic Implications of the Life Cycle-Permanent Income Hypothesis: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(6), pages 971-87, December.
- Sachs, Jeffrey, 1982. " The Current Account in the Macroeconomic Adjustment Process," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 84(2), pages 147-59.
- Otto, Glenn, 1992. "Testing a present-value model of the current account: Evidence from US and Canadian time series," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(5), pages 414-430, October.
- Milton Friedman, 1957. "A Theory of the Consumption Function," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number frie57-1.
- Stockman, Alan C & Tesar, Linda L, 1995.
"Tastes and Technology in a Two-Country Model of the Business Cycle: Explaining International Comovements,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 85(1), pages 168-85, March.
- Alan C. Stockman & Linda L. Tesar, 1991. "Tastes and technology in a two-country model of the business cycle: explaining international co-movements," Working Paper 9019, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
- Alan C. Stockman & Linda L. Tesar, 1990. "Tastes and Technology in a Two-Country Model of the Business Cycle: Explaining International Comovements," NBER Working Papers 3566, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kano, Takashi, 2008.
"A structural VAR approach to the intertemporal model of the current account,"
Journal of International Money and Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 757-779, September.
- Takashi Kano, 2003. "A Structural VAR Approach to the Intertemporal Model of the Current Account," Working Papers 03-42, Bank of Canada.
- Ayla Ogus & Niloufer Sohrabji, 2008. "On the optimality and sustainability of Turkey’s current account," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 543-568, November.
- Lau, Evan & Baharumshah, Ahmad Zubaidi & Habibullah, Muzafar Shah, 2007. "Accounting for the Current Account Behavior in ASEAN-5," MPRA Paper 1322, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Paul Bergin & Steven Sheffrin, .
"Interest Rates, Exchange Rates And Present Value Models Of The Current Account,"
Department of Economics
97-22, California Davis - Department of Economics.
- Bergin, Paul R & Sheffrin, Steven M, 2000. "Interest Rates, Exchange Rates and Present Value Models of the Current Account," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(463), pages 535-58, April.
- Steven M. Sheffrin & Paul Bergin, 2003. "Interest Rates, Exchange Rates And Present Value Models Of The Current Account," Working Papers 9722, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
- Milton Friedman, 1957. "Introduction to "A Theory of the Consumption Function"," NBER Chapters, in: A Theory of the Consumption Function, pages 1-6 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Khundrakpam, J. K. & Ranjan, Rajiv, 2008. "Can an Inter-temporal Model Explain India's Current Account Balance?," MPRA Paper 50928, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Jeffrey D. Sachs, 1981. "The Current Account and macroeconomic Adjustment in the 1970s," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 12(1), pages 201-282.
- Gruber, Joseph W., 2004. "A present value test of habits and the current account," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(7), pages 1495-1507, October.
- Milbourne, Ross & Otto, Glenn, 1992. "Consumption Smoothing and the Current Account," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(59), pages 369-84, December.
- Jonathan D. Ostry & Carmen M. Reinhart, 1992. "Private Saving and Terms of Trade Shocks: Evidence from Developing Countries," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 39(3), pages 495-517, September.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Khurram Iqbal).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.