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Orphanhood and the Living Arrangements of Children in Sub-Saharan Africa

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  • Beegle, Kathleen
  • Filmer, Deon
  • Stokes, Andrew
  • Tiererova, Lucia

Abstract

Summary Increasing adult mortality due to HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa raises considerable concern about the welfare of surviving children. Studies have found substantial variability across countries in the negative impacts of orphanhood on child health and education. One hypothesis for this variability is the resilience of the extended family network in some countries to care for orphans--networks under increasing pressure by the sheer number of orphans in many settings. Using household survey data from 21 countries in Africa, this study examines trends in orphanhood and living arrangements, and the links between the two. The findings confirm that orphanhood is increasing, although not all countries are experiencing rapid rises. In many countries, there has been a shift toward grandparents taking an increased childcare responsibility--especially where orphan rates are growing rapidly. This suggests some merit to the claim that the extended network is narrowing, focusing on grandparents who are older, and may be less able than working-age adults financially to support orphans. However, there are also changes in childcare patterns in countries with stable orphan rates or low HIV prevalence. This suggests that future work on living arrangements should not exclude low HIV/AIDS prevalence countries, and explanations for changes should include a broader set of factors.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal World Development.

Volume (Year): 38 (2010)
Issue (Month): 12 (December)
Pages: 1727-1746

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Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:38:y:2010:i:12:p:1727-1746

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/worlddev

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Keywords: orphans sub-Saharan Africa HIV/AIDS household structure child fostering;

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References

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  1. Beegle, Kathleen & Krutikova, Sofya, 2007. "Adult mortality and children's transition into marriage," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4139, The World Bank.
  2. Akresh, Richard, 2004. "Adjusting Household Structure: School Enrollment Impacts of Child Fostering in Burkina Faso," IZA Discussion Papers 1379, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Anne Case & Cally Ardington, 2006. "The impact of parental death on school outcomes: Longitudinal evidence from South Africa," Demography, Springer, vol. 43(3), pages 401-420, August.
  4. Anne Case & Christina Paxson & Joseph Ableidinger, 2004. "Orphans in Africa: Parental Death, Poverty and School Enrollment," Working Papers 256, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Health and Wellbeing..
  5. Ainsworth, Martha & Semali, Innocent, 2000. "The impact of adult deaths on children's health in Northwestern Tanzania," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2266, The World Bank.
  6. Beegle, Kathleen & De Weerdt, Joachim & Dercon, Stefan, 2007. "The long-run impact of orphanhood," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4353, The World Bank.
  7. Miguel Niño-Zarazúa & Armando Barrientos & David Hulme & Sam Hickey, 2010. "Social protection in sub-Saharan Africa: Will the green shoots blossom?," Brooks World Poverty Institute Working Paper Series 11610, BWPI, The University of Manchester.
  8. Benjamin Davis & Paul Winters & Gero Carletto & Katia Covarrubias & Esteban Quinones & Alberto Zezza & Kostas Stamoulis & Genny Bonomi & Stefania DiGiuseppe, 2007. "Rural Income Generating Activities; A Cross Country Comparison," Working Papers 07-16, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
  9. David Evans & Edward Miguel, 2007. "Orphans and schooling in africa: a longitudinal analysis," Demography, Springer, vol. 44(1), pages 35-57, February.
  10. Serra, Renata, 2009. "Child fostering in Africa: When labor and schooling motives may coexist," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 157-170, January.
  11. Nyambedha, Erick Otieno & Wandibba, Simiyu & Aagaard-Hansen, Jens, 2003. "Changing patterns of orphan care due to the HIV epidemic in western Kenya," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 301-311, July.
  12. Bicego, George & Rutstein, Shea & Johnson, Kiersten, 2003. "Dimensions of the emerging orphan crisis in sub-Saharan Africa," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 56(6), pages 1235-1247, March.
  13. Filmer, Deon & Scott, Kinnon, 2008. "Assessing asset indices," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4605, The World Bank.
  14. Atwine, Benjamin & Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth & Bajunirwe, Francis, 2005. "Psychological distress among AIDS orphans in rural Uganda," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 61(3), pages 555-564, August.
  15. Ainsworth, Martha & Filmer, Deon, 2006. "Inequalities in children's schooling: AIDS, orphanhood, poverty, and gender," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1099-1128, June.
  16. Kathleen Ford & Victoria Hosegood, 2005. "Aids mortality and the mobility of children in Kwazulu Natal, South Africa," Demography, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 757-768, November.
  17. Frederick J. Zimmerman, 2003. "Cinderella Goes to School: The Effects of Child Fostering on School Enrollment in South Africa," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 38(3).
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Cited by:
  1. Omar Mahmoud, Toman & Thiele, Rainer, 2010. "Does AIDS-Related Mortality Reduce Per-Capita Household Income? Evidence from Rural Zambia," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Hannover 2010 18, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
  2. Achyuta R. Adhvaryu & Kathleen Beegle, 2012. "The Long-Run Impacts of Adult Deaths on Older Household Members in Tanzania," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 60(2), pages 245 - 277.
  3. Omar Mahmoud, Toman & Thiele, Rainer, 2013. "Does Prime-Age Mortality Reduce Per-Capita Household Income? Evidence from Rural Zambia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 51-62.
  4. Hagen, Jens & Omar Mahmoud, Toman & Trofimenko, Natalia, 2010. "Orphanhood and Critical Periods in Children's Human Capital Formation: Long-Run Evidence from North-Western Tanzania," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Hannover 2010 33, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
  5. Webbink, Ellen & Smits, Jeroen & de Jong, Eelke, 2012. "Hidden Child Labor: Determinants of Housework and Family Business Work of Children in 16 Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 631-642.
  6. Jens Hagen & Toman Omar Mahmoud & Natalia Trofimenko, 2010. "Orphanhood and Critical Periods in Children’s Human Capital Formation: Long-Run Evidence from North-Western Tanzania," Kiel Working Papers 1649, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  7. Beegle, Kathleen & Poulin, Michelle, 2012. "Migration and the transition to adulthood in contemporary Malawi," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6200, The World Bank.
  8. Lauren Bachan, 2014. "Anticipatory child fostering and household economic security in Malawi," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 30(40), pages 1157-1188, April.
  9. Coneus, Katja & Mühlenweg, Andrea M., 2011. "Orphans at risk in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence on educational and health outcomes," ZEW Discussion Papers 11-008, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  10. World Bank, 2012. "Switzerland - Using Public Transfers to Reduce Extreme Poverty," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12321, The World Bank.
  11. Laura Camfield, 2011. "Outcomes of Orphanhood in Ethiopia: A Mixed Methods Study," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 104(1), pages 87-102, October.
  12. Karimli, Leyla & Ssewamala, Fred M. & Ismayilova, Leyla, 2012. "Extended families and perceived caregiver support to AIDS orphans in Rakai district of Uganda," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1351-1358.

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