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Dimensions of the emerging orphan crisis in sub-Saharan Africa

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  • Bicego, George
  • Rutstein, Shea
  • Johnson, Kiersten
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    Abstract

    This study uses recent Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data to examine levels, trends, and differentials in orphan prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. The first part of the analysis presents direct estimates of orphan prevalence in 17 countries during the period 1995-2000. We find a strong correlation between orphanhood prevalence and national adult HIV prevalence estimates lending support to the interpretation of the orphan crisis as, in large part, AIDS-related. The second part of the analysis consists of an in-depth study of trends and age-patterns in orphan prevalence and welfare in the 1990s for five countries that have had widely divergent HIV prevalence levels (Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana, and Niger). The vulnerability of orphans with respect to their situation in households and educational opportunities is evaluated in relation to non-orphans' experience. The results of the analysis indicate that losing one or both parents is significantly associated with diminished chances of being at the appropriate grade level for age. Our results are interpreted in the context of societal responses to the crisis, and potential recommendations for intervention.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Social Science & Medicine.

    Volume (Year): 56 (2003)
    Issue (Month): 6 (March)
    Pages: 1235-1247

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:56:y:2003:i:6:p:1235-1247

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    Related research

    Keywords: AIDS HIV Orphans Mortality Education Children Sub-Saharan Africa;

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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Karimli, Leyla & Ssewamala, Fred M. & Ismayilova, Leyla, 2012. "Extended families and perceived caregiver support to AIDS orphans in Rakai district of Uganda," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1351-1358.
    2. Beegle, Kathleen & Filmer, Deon & Stokes, Andrew & Tiererova, Lucia, 2009. "Orphanhood and the living arrangements of children in sub-saharan Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4889, The World Bank.
    3. Emily Smith-Greenaway & Jessica Heckert, 2013. "Does the orphan disadvantage "spill over"? An analysis of whether living in an area with a higher concentration of orphans is associated with children’s school enrollment in sub-Sahar," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 28(40), pages 1167-1198, June.
    4. Deon Filmer & Kinnon Scott, 2012. "Assessing Asset Indices," Demography, Springer, vol. 49(1), pages 359-392, February.
    5. Kenneth Harttgen, 2007. "The Impact of HIV on Children´s Welfare," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 157, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
    6. Harttgen, Kenneth & Klasen, Stephan, 2012. "A Household-Based Human Development Index," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(5), pages 878-899.
    7. Christopher Ksoll, 2007. "Family Networks and Orphan Caretaking in Tanzania," Economics Series Working Papers 361, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    8. Harttgen, Kenneth & Vollmer, Sebastian, 2013. "Using an asset index to simulate household income," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 121(2), pages 257-262.
    9. Lauren Bachan, 2014. "Anticipatory child fostering and household economic security in Malawi," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 30(40), pages 1157-1188, April.
    10. Kenneth Harttgen & Stephan Klasen, 2011. "A Human Development Index at the Household Level," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 75, Courant Research Centre PEG.
    11. Alexander A. Weinreb & Patrick Gerland & Peter Fleming, 2008. "Hotspots and Coldspots: Household and village-level variation in orphanhood prevalence in rural Malawi," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 19(32), pages 1217-1248, July.
    12. Schatz, Enid & Ogunmefun, Catherine, 2007. "Caring and Contributing: The Role of Older Women in Rural South African Multi-generational Households in the HIV/AIDS Era," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(8), pages 1390-1403, August.
    13. Ueyama, Mika, 2007. "Mortality, mobility, and schooling outcomes among orphans: Evidence from Malawi," IFPRI discussion papers 710, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    14. Ng'ondi, Naftali Bernard, 2012. "Socio-demographic and service provision characteristics associated with primary school attendance among the Most Vulnerable Children in Tanzania," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 34(12), pages 2255-2262.
    15. Ainsworth, Martha & Filmer, Deon, 2006. "Inequalities in children's schooling: AIDS, orphanhood, poverty, and gender," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1099-1128, June.

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