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The impact of adult deaths on children's health in Northwestern Tanzania

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  • Ainsworth, Martha
  • Semali, Innocent
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    Abstract

    The AIDS epidemic is dramatically increasing mortality of adults in many Sub-Saharan African countries, with potentially severe consequences for surviving family members. Until now, most of these impacts had not been quantified. The authors examine the impact of adult mortality in Tanzania on three measures of health among children under five: morbidity, height for age, and weight for height. The children hit hardest by the death of a parent or other adult are those in the poorest households, those with uneducated parents, and those with the least access to health care. The authors also show how much three important health interventions-immunization against measles, and rehydration salts, and access to health care-can do to mitigate the impact of adult mortality. These programs disproportionately improve health outcomes among the poorest children and, within that group, among children affected by adult mortality. In Tanzania there is so much poverty, and child health indicators are so low that these interventions should be targeted as much as possible to the poorest households, where the children hit hardest by adult mortality are most likely to be found. (Conceivably, the targeting strategy for middle-income countries with severe AIDS epidemics, such as Thailand, or countries with less poverty and better child health indicators might be different.)

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2266.

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    Date of creation: 31 Jan 2000
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    Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2266

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    Keywords: Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Early Child and Children's Health; Disease Control&Prevention; Early Childhood Development; Public Health Promotion; Adolescent Health; Early Child and Children's Health; Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Street Children; Youth and Governance;

    References

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    1. Strauss, J., 1988. "The Effects Of Household And Community Characteristics On The Nutrition Of Preschool Children," Papers 40, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
    2. Duncan Thomas & John Strauss & Maria-Helena Henriques, 1991. "How Does Mother's Education Affect Child Height?," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 26(2), pages 183-211.
    3. Thomas, D. & Lavy, V. & Strauss, J., 1991. "Public Policy and Anthropometric Outcomes in the Cote d'Ivoire," Papers 643, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
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    5. Glewwe, Paul & Jacoby, Hanan G. & King, Elizabeth M., 2001. "Early childhood nutrition and academic achievement: a longitudinal analysis," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(3), pages 345-368, September.
    6. Handa, Sudhanshu, 1999. "Maternal Education and Child Height," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(2), pages 421-39, January.
    7. Behrman, Jere R. & Deolalikar, Anil B., 1988. "Health and nutrition," Handbook of Development Economics, in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 14, pages 631-711 Elsevier.
    8. Glewwe, Paul & Jocoby, Hanan & King, Elizabeth M., 1999. "Early childhood nutrition and academic achievement," FCND discussion papers 68, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    9. Behrman, Jere R., 1993. "The economic rationale for investing in nutrition in developing countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 21(11), pages 1749-1771, November.
    10. Guilkey, David K. & Murphy, James L., 1993. "Estimation and testing in the random effects probit model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 59(3), pages 301-317, October.
    11. Sindelar, J. & Thomas, D., 1991. "Measurement of Child Health: Maternal Response Bias," Papers 633, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
    12. G. S. Maddala, 1987. "Limited Dependent Variable Models Using Panel Data," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 22(3), pages 307-338.
    13. Ainsworth, M. & Koda, G. & Lwihula, G. & Mujinja, P. & Over, M. & Semali, I., 1992. "Measuring the Impact of Fatal Adult Illness in Sub-Saharan Africa; An Annotated Household Questionnaire.," Papers 90, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Ainsworth, Martha & Dayton, Julia, 2001. "The impact of the AIDS epidemic on the health of the elderly in Tanzania," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2649, The World Bank.
    2. Deininger, Klaus & Garcia, Marito & Subbarao, K., 2003. "AIDS-Induced Orphanhood as a Systemic Shock: Magnitude, Impact, and Program Interventions in Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1201-1220, July.
    3. Ndirangu, Murugi & Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich & Palm, Cheryl & Deckelbaum, Richard J., 2013. "HIV affected households in Western Kenya experience greater food insecurity," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 11-17.
    4. Kadiyala, Suneetha & Quisumbing, Agnes & Rogers, Beatrice & Webb, Patrick, 2009. "The Impact of Prime Age Adult Mortality on Child Survival and Growth in Rural Ethiopia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 1116-1128, June.
    5. Beegle, Kathleen & Filmer, Deon & Stokes, Andrew & Tiererova, Lucia, 2010. "Orphanhood and the Living Arrangements of Children in Sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(12), pages 1727-1746, December.
    6. Ainsworth, Martha & Dayton, Julia, 2003. "The Impact of the AIDS Epidemic on the Health of Older Persons in Northwestern Tanzania," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 131-148, January.

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