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Rural Income Generating Activities: A Cross Country Comparison

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  • Davis, Benjamin
  • Covarrubias, Katia
  • Stamoulis, Kostas G.
  • Winters, Paul C.
  • Carletto, Calogero
  • Quinones, Esteban
  • Zezza, Alberto
  • Di Giuseppe, Stefania

Abstract

This paper uses a newly constructed cross country database composed of comparable variables and aggregates from household surveys to examine the full range of income generating activities carried out by rural households in order to determine: 1) the relative importance of the gamut of income generating activities in general and across wealth categories; 2), the relative importance of diversification versus specialization at the household level; and 3) the influence of rural income generating activities on poverty and inequality. Analysis of the RIGA cross country dataset paints a clear picture of multiple activities across rural space and diversification across rural households. This is true across countries in all four continents, though less so in the African countries included in the dataset. For most countries the largest share of income stems from off farm activities, and the largest share of households have diversified sources of income. Diversification, not specialization, is the norm, although most countries show significant levels of household specialization in non-agricultural activities as well. Nevertheless, agricultural based sources of income remain critically important for rural livelihoods in all countries, both in terms of the overall share of agriculture in rural incomes as well as the large share of households that still specialize in agricultural sources of income.

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Paper provided by European Association of Agricultural Economists in its series 106th Seminar, October 25-27, 2007, Montpellier, France with number 7913.

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Date of creation: 2007
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Handle: RePEc:ags:eaa106:7913

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Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics;

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Zezza, Alberto & Winters, Paul C. & Davis, Benjamin & Carletto, Calogero & Covarrubias, Katia & Quinones, Esteban & Stamoulis, Kostas G. & Di Giuseppe, Stefania, 2007. "Rural Household Access to Assets and Agrarian Institutions: A Cross Country Comparison," 106th Seminar, October 25-27, 2007, Montpellier, France 7925, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
  2. Lubungu, Mary, 2013. "Welfare Effects Of Smallholder Farmers’ Participation In Livestock Markets In Zambia," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 150606, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  3. Xenarios, Stefanos & Amarasinghe, Upali & Sharma, Bharat R., 2011. "Valuating agricultural water use and ecological services in agrarian economies: evidences from eastern India," IWMI Research Reports H043778, International Water Management Institute.
  4. Atamanov, Aziz & Van den Berg, Marrit, 2011. "Microeconomic analysis of rural nonfarm activities in the Kyrgyz Republic: What determines participation and returns?," MERIT Working Papers 011, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  5. Anriquez, Gustavo & Stamoulis, Kostas G., 2007. "Rural Development and Poverty Reduction: Is Agriculture Still Key?," eJADE: electronic Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics, Food and Agriculture Organization, Agricultural and Development Economics Division, vol. 4(1).
  6. Birthal, Pratap S. & Negi, Digvijay S. & Jha, Awadesh K. & Singh, Dhiraj, 2014. "Income Sources of Farm Households in India: Determinants, Distributional Consequences and Policy Implications," Agricultural Economics Research Review, Agricultural Economics Research Association (India), vol. 27(1).
  7. Beegle, Kathleen & Filmer, Deon & Stokes, Andrew & Tiererova, Lucia, 2009. "Orphanhood and the living arrangements of children in sub-saharan Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4889, The World Bank.
  8. Zezza, Alberto & Carletto, Gero & Davis, Benjamin & Stamoulis, Kostas & Winters, Paul, 2009. "Rural Income Generating Activities: Whatever Happened to the Institutional Vacuum? Evidence from Ghana, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Vietnam," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(7), pages 1297-1306, July.
  9. Gustavo Anríquez & Kostas Stamoulis, 2007. "Rural Development and Poverty Reduction; Is Agriculture Still the Key?," Working Papers 07-02, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
  10. Paul Winters & Timothy Essam & Benjamin Davis & Alberto Zezza & Calogero Carletto & Kostas Stamoulis, 2008. "Patterns of Rural Development: A Cross-Country Comparison Using Microeconomic Data," Working Papers 08-06, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
  11. Atamanov, Aziz & Van den Berg, Marrit, 2012. "Determinants of the rural nonfarm economy in Tajikistan," MERIT Working Papers 080, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  12. Buchenrieder, Gertrud & Hanf, Jon Henrich & Pieniadz, Agata, 2009. "20 years of transition in the agri-food sector," German Journal of Agricultural Economics, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department for Agricultural Economics, vol. 58(7).
  13. Gero Carletto & Katia Covarrubias & Benjamin Davis & Marika Krausova & Kostas Stamoulis & Paul Winters & Alberto Zezza, 2007. "Rural income generating activities in developing countries: re-assessing the evidence," The Electronic Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, vol. 4(1), pages 146-193.
  14. Gustavo Anríquez, 2007. "Long-Term Rural Demographic Trends," Working Papers 07-19, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
  15. Gustavo Anríquez & Kostas Stamoulis, 2007. "Rural development and poverty reduction: is agriculture still the key?," The Electronic Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, vol. 4(1), pages 5-46.
  16. Alberto Zezza & Benjamin Davis & Carlo Azzarri & Katia Covarrubias & Luca Tasciotti & Gustavo Anriquez, 2008. "The Impact of Rising Food Prices on the Poor," Working Papers 08-07, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
  17. Francesca Marchetta, 2008. "Migration and non farm activities as income diversification strategies: the case of Northern Ghana," Working Papers - Economics wp2008_16.rdf, Universita' degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa.
  18. Nagler, Paula & Naudé, Wim, 2014. "Non-Farm Entrepreneurship in Rural Africa: Patterns and Determinants," IZA Discussion Papers 8008, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  19. S. Chandrasekhar & Ajay Sharma, 2012. "On the internal mobility of Indians: Knowledge gaps and emerging concerns," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2012-023, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.

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